第六冊 1單元 間接問句的用法

 

標題句:We still don't know when he left here.

    May wants to know when to leave here.

結 構:Wh- 名詞子句(間接問句)

    Wh- 不定詞片語

 

一、間接問句:一個問句併入另一個句子中者,稱為間接問句。先觀察下列句子的變化。

1. a.他是誰?(直接問句)

b.我不知道他是誰。(間接問句)

(原本 a 句稱為直接問句,顯然這個句子是獨立的; b 句中的「他是誰」則明顯地是附屬於「我不知道 ...」的主要子句中,而成為間接問句。)

 

2. a.你要什麼?(直接問句)

b.告訴我你要什麼。(間接問句)

(和上例一樣,「你要什麼」在 b 句中是併入「告訴我 ...」的主要子句中, 而成為附屬的間接問句。)

 

3. a.誰要這本書?(直接問句)

b.你知道誰要這本書嗎?(間接問句)

(「誰要這本書」併入「你知道 ... 嗎?」主要子句中,而成為附屬的間接問句。)

 

分析以上三組的 b 句,均可發現其各可分為兩個部份:主要子句附屬子句

 

1b.我不知道   他是誰

 (主要子句)  (附屬子句)

 

2b.告訴我   你要什麼

 (主要子句)  (附屬子句)

 

3b.你知道   誰要這本書   嗎?

 (主要子句)  (附屬子句)

 

這三個子句的附屬子句, 均是屬「名詞子句」性質,當作其前面動詞或介詞的受詞。將這三個句子譯成英文,注意由直接問句轉變為間接問句時,主詞與動詞的位置變化,例:

 

4. a. Who is he?(直接問句)

b. I don't know who he is.(間接問句)

5. a. What do you want?(直接問句)

b. Tell me what you want.(間接問句)── do不見了。

6. a. Who wants the book?(直接問句)

b. Do you know who wants the book?(間接問句)

──本句中的 who 因已作為 wants 的主詞,故改為間接問句,其主詞和動詞的位置並沒有改變。

 

由上可歸納出,含有「間接問句」的句型概略為:

主要子句

疑問詞

主詞

(助動詞) + 動詞

‧‧‧

(註:助動詞若非是 do/does/did 等者,仍須保留。)

例:

7. I don't know where he is going.

8. He couldn't understand how this accident happened.

9. He tries to find out where the trouble is.

10. Do you know if (是否)he will come today?

 

間接問句後的標點符號:是句點呢?還是問號?這須視主要子句而定。亦即主要子句為肯定句或否定句時,則句尾為句點;主要子句為疑問句或否定疑問句時,則改用問號。例:

11. a. Who is he?(直接問句)

b. I know.主要子句─肯定句

I know who he is.

12. a. Why did he go?(直接問句)

b. I don't understand.主要子句─否定句

I don't understand why he went.

13. a. Who is it?(直接問句)

b. Would you see?主要子句─疑問句

Would you see who it is?

 

在看了以上的說明之後,相信你應已學會「間接問句」的基本用法,但有一種特殊的情況,那就是若「直接問句」是沒有「疑問詞」的 yes-no 問句,那在合併句子時,又要如何處理?

例:

直接問句:Is he a student?(是為「沒有疑問詞」的 yes-no問句

主要子句:I don't know.

 

將上述兩句合併時,除了要將「直接問句」中的主詞和 be 回復成原來的「主詞 + be」的順序外,還必須要在「間接問句」前(即在「主要子句」後,加上「連接詞」 if/whether(是否)。所以合併上述兩短句後的長句是:

I don't know if he is a student. I don't know whether he is a student.

 

想想看一合併下列各句。

1. What are they talking about?

 I can't hear.

2. How did he go to Taipei?

 I have understood.

3. When will we start?

 We still don't know.

4. What are on the blackboard?

 Can you see?

5. What can't we do?

 The teacher teaches us.

6. Where does her child work?

 Have you known?

7. Is that man our new English teacher?

 Can you ask Mr. Wang?

8. Did Jack leave the town last night?

 Please tell me.

 

想想看二:翻譯下列各句。

1.他不曉得他能夠去哪裡。

2.你記得她幾歲嗎?

3.告訴我們那場籃球比賽怎樣了。

4.John問他的哥哥為何他拿走了他的眼鏡。

5.她有沒有說她何時要來?

6.我不知道父親是否要和我們一起踢足球。

7.你認為誰會在正確的時間到來?

8.試著記住誰打開這扇門的。

9.你可以問Tom, 他今天晚上是否要去超級市場。

10.我已忘記我要在這家百貨公司買什麼了。

 


 

when if 的麻煩事:其後是接「副詞子句」還是「名詞子句」?此種辨別尤其在未來式中,更顯其重要性。

 

1. when if 當副詞子句的用法:when (...時候)if (假如)例:

14. a. () Tell him the truth when he comes tomorrow. (truth:事實)

= When he comes tomorrow, tell him the truth.

他明天來的時候, 告訴他事實真相。)

b. () Tell him the truth when he will come tomorrow.

15. a. () You can give him the money if he comes tomorrow.

= If he comes tomorrow, you can give him the money.

假如他明天來的話, 你可以把這些錢給他。)

b. () You can give him the money if he will come tomorrow.

when, if, after, before 所引導的「副詞子句」中,若為未來時間時,則須用現在單純式代替未來式。

 

2. when if 當名詞子句的用法: when(何時), if(是否)例:

16. a. () I know when he will come tomorrow.

(我知道他明天何時會來。)

b. () I know when he comes tomorrow.

17. a. () I don't know if he will come tomorrow.

(我不知道他明天是否會來。)

b. () I don't know if he comes tomorrow.

when if 若引導一「名詞子句」,則其後的動詞時態與一般用法相同。

 

由上可知, whenif所引導的子句,究屬何種性質子句,由中文意思便可輕易判斷出,其結論如下:

(1) when (...的時候) if (假如),則其後是接副詞子句。若其子句中動詞時間為未來,則須用現在單純式代替未來式。

(2) when (何時) if (是否),則其後是接名詞子句,其後動詞的時態與一般用法相同,亦即若時間為未來,則仍用未來式。


二、Wh- 不定詞片語:在含間接問句的句子中, 前後子句的主詞為同一人時,後面的間接問句中,可省略主詞,改為不定詞形式。注意以下句子的變化。例:

18.

a. I don't know what I must do.
b. → I don't know
what to do.(我不知道該做什麼。)

19.

a. He couldn't remember how he went there.

b. → He couldn't remember how to go there.(他記不得如何去那裡了。)

20.

a. The students weren't told where they should go.

b. → The students weren't told where to go.(沒人告訴這些學生要去哪裡。)

21.

a. She'll tell you who you must ask.
b. → She'll tell you
who to ask.(她將會告訴你要去問誰。)

適用於此種方式的疑問詞,除了以上 what, how, where 外,尚有 which, when, who, whether 等,唯獨沒有why

記憶方法

what to ask

(要問什麼)

 

which to ask

(要問哪一個)

 

who to ask

(要問誰)

 

how to ask

(要如何問)

 

where to ask

(哪裡問)

 

when to ask

(何時問)

 

whether to ask

(要不要問)

例:
22. The little animal did not know
what to do.
23. I don't know
how to make it.
24. You can ask the policeman over there
where to go.

 

想想看三:應用上述的說法,翻譯下列各句。

1. 他已忘記如何回答這個問題了。

2. 你能否告訴我要做什麼? 

3. 我不知道何時離開這裡。 

4. 他告訴我該拿哪一本書。 

5. Mary記不得該幫誰。 

6. 我想要知道要去哪裡。

  

想想看四:請依上、下文意,選出最正確的答案。

1. We are never told when she     next season.

(A) comes (B) came (C) will come (D) is coming

2. Some students are discussing (討論)     course to take this school year.

(A) what (B) how (C) when (D) who

3. After hearing the good news about her son, Aunt Julia has forgotten what     going to do next.

(A) is she (B) she is (C) will she (D) she will

4. Brian's mother will give him a new bike if he     the important test next week.

(A) passes (B) passed (C) will pass (D) is passing

5. Do you know who     a hand for this difficult task (工作)?

(A) are you going to give (B) you are going to give (C) you will give (D) will give you

6. Harry is only fifteen years old. You shouldn't teach him     to drive a car.

(A) what (B) how (C) which (D) who

 

 

 

 

 

 

想想看一:[ 核對答案 ]

想想看二:[ 核對答案 ]

想想看三:[ 核對答案 ]

想想看四:[ 核對答案 ]

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