第五冊第 1 單元 現在分詞與過去分詞

 

標題句: The novel written by J. K. Rowling is popular.
     The lady waiting there is a famous model.

結 構:現在分詞與過去分詞的介紹

 

現在分詞: (你可以記成 V-ing

在第一冊的「 現在進行式 」中,我們即已學到「現在分詞」,就是在「 動詞 」的後面加 ing ,大致上有三種情形:

一、直接在「 動詞 」的字尾加上 ing

如: speak → speak ing    

open → open ing    

walk → walk ing

 

二、若原 動詞 」的字尾有 不發音的 e 時,則先去掉字尾 e ,再加 ing

如: come → co ming    

surprise→ surpri sing    

celebrate→ celebra ting

註:

這種情形,只適用於原動詞字尾的 e 字母不發音時,所以若原動詞字尾 e 有發音時,則不適用於本規則,如 be [bi] ,字尾 e 是發母音 [i] ,則其「現在分詞」形式就應是 being ,字尾 e 是不用去掉的。

 

三、若原 動詞 」字尾(雙音節則是句尾為「重音節」)的 後三個字母和音標,都呈「子音 + 母音 + 子音」排列 (簡稱「 子母子 」排列),則 須先「重覆字尾」,再加 ing

如: sit → sit t ing    

run → run n ing    

stop → stop p ing    

begin → begin n ing

 

這些「現在分詞」,與 be 搭配(即 ... be + V-ing ... ),是用於「進行式」中,而已學過的「進行式」,又可分為「 現在進行式 」和「 過去進行式 」,例句分別如下:

1. He is watching TV in the living room.

(他 正在 客廳裡 電視。)


2. The students are sitting on their chairs in the classroom.

(那些學生 正坐 在教室裡他們的椅子上。)

 

3. When the accident happened, John was riding his bicycle along the street.

(當車禍發生的時候, John 沿著街道 騎著 他的腳踏車。)


4. David was writing an e-mail to his friend at 7:50 last night.

(昨天晚上 7:50 時, David 正在寫 一封電子郵件給他的朋友。)

 

過去分詞: (你可以記成 p.p.

過去分詞 」主要是用於「 完成式 」和「 被動態 」中,看起來好像是「新」的東西, 事實上它 很像 已學過的「 過去式 (你可以記成 p.t. ,因「過去分詞」也是分為「規則變化」和「不規則變化」兩種;一個動詞的「 過去式 」是「規則變化」,它的「過去分詞」也是「規則變化」,而且都是加 d/ed/ied ,也就是說, 規則變化 的動詞,它們的「 過去式 」和「過去分詞」都是一樣的

一、通常是直接在「動詞」字尾加 ed

如: open → open ed    

look → look ed    

walk → walk ed    

start → start ed

 

二、若原 動詞 」的字尾有 不發音的 e 時,則加 d 即可:

如: close → clo sed    

surprise→ surpri sed    

celebrate→ celebra ted    

hate → ha ted

 

三、若原 動詞 」字尾的 後三個字母和音標,都呈「子音 + 母音 + 子音」排列 (簡稱「 子母子 」排列),則 須先「重覆字尾」,再加 ed

如: plan → plan n ed    

jog → jog g ed    

stop → stop p ed    

clap → clap p ed    

drop → drop p ed

 

四、若原 動詞 」字尾為「 子音 + y 」時,則 須先去掉 y ,再加 ied

如: study → stud i ed    

carry → carr i ed    

copy → cop i ed    

cry → cr i ed    

fry → fr i ed

 

至於「 不規則變化 」動詞的部分,也和「 過去式 」的一樣,也是要背到滾瓜爛熟,在「國民中小學最基本之 1200 個字詞」中,總共有:

註: 有些雖然還沒教到,但都已是九年級了,早晚也是要背的,不如現在就多背一點,到時就會比較熟悉了。)

原形動詞

過去式

過去分詞

原形動詞

過去式

過去分詞

be

was/were

been

leave

left

left

bear ( )

bore

born

lend

lent

lent

become

became

become

let

let

let

begin

began

begun

lie ( )

lay

lain

bite

bit

bitten

lose

lost

lost

blow

blew

blown

make

made

made

break

broke

broken

mean

meant

meant

bring

brought

brought

meet

met

met

build

built

built

mistake ( 誤解;誤會 )

mistook

mistaken

buy

bought

bought

pay

paid

paid

catch

caught

caught

put

put

put

choose

chose

chosen

read

read

read

come

came

come

ride

rode

ridden

cost

cost

cost

ring

rang

rung

cut

cut

cut

rise

rose

risen

dig

dug

dug

run

ran

run

do

did

done

say

said

said

draw

drew

drawn

see

saw

seen

drink

drank

drunk

sell

sold

sold

drive

drove

driven

send

sent

sent

eat

ate

eaten

set ( 擺放;安置 )

set

set

fall

fell

fallen

shake

shook

shaken

feed

fed

fed

shine

shone

shone

feel

felt

felt

show

showed

showed; shown

fight

fought

fought

sing

sang

sung

find

found

found

sit

sat

sat

fly

flew

flown

sleep

slept

slept

forget

forgot

forgotten

spend

spent

spent

get

got

got; gotten

stand

stood

stood

give

gave

given

swim

swam

swum

grow

grew

grown

swing

swung

swung

hang

hung

hung

take

took

taken

have

had

had

teach

taught

taught

hear

heard

heard

tell

told

told

hide

hid

hidden

think

thought

thought

hit

hit

hit

understand

understood

understood

hold

held

held

wake

woke

woken

hurt

hurt

hurt

wear

wore

worn

keep

kept

kept

win

won

won

know

knew

known

write

wrote

written

lead

led

led

 

 

 

 

這些「不規則變化」動詞中,有些其實也有點規則,如 pay say sing drink 等,但依經驗顯示,這些「有點像」的動詞變化,對台灣的學生來說,好像也沒什麼差別,反正都是要背好; 但有些「長得很像」的動詞變化,就要特別留意,如 bring, buy, catch, fight, teach, think 等的「過去式」和「過去分詞」

想想看: 做練習是增加實力,檢驗懂與否的重要步驟。

請寫出下列各個動詞的「原形動詞」、「現在分詞」、「過去式」和「過去分詞」:

題號

原形動詞

現在分詞

過去式

過去分詞

1

 

believing

 

 

2

 

 

enjoyed

 

3

send

 

 

 

4

 

sitting

 

 

5

 

 

threw

 

6

 

taking

 

 

7

hike

 

 

 

8

leave

 

 

 

9

mop

 

 

 

10

 

 

went

 

11

catch

 

 

 

12

choose

 

 

 

13

 

answering

 

 

14

 

 

broke

 

15

 

crying

 

 

16

meet

 

 

 

17

 

getting

 

 

18

 

 

thought

 

19

cover

 

 

 

20

dig

 

 

 

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