第五冊第 3 單元 被動態的表達

 

標題句: The window is broken.

結 構:被動態

  在「 現在分詞與過去分詞 」單元中,即已提到「 過去分詞 」主要是用於「 完成式 」和「被動態」中,而現在就來學「過去分詞」在「被動態」中的用法。


 

在此之前所學過的句子均稱為「主動句」:

1. Tom writes the letter. Tom 寫這封信。)
2. The children finished the work.
(這些小孩完成了那件工作。)
3. They ask the question.
(他們問這個問題。)

上述各句中的動詞,均是由該動詞前之 主詞 所做,這種表達方式稱為「主動句」。但上述各句的中文也可以改為這樣:

4. 這封信是 Tom 所寫的。
5.
那件工作是這些小孩完成的。
6.
這個問題是他們問的。

4~6 句中的動作和 1~3 句的動作不變,但放在主詞位置的字卻已改變;也就是說,在例句 4 中,動詞「寫」並非由主詞「這封信」所做,而 Tom 所做 ;在例句 5 中亦然,動詞「完成」並非由主詞「那件工作」所做,而 「這些小孩」所做 ;在例句 6 中,動詞「問」並非由主詞「這個問題」所做,而 「他們」所做。這樣的表達方式,就稱為「 被動態

再把例句 4~6 翻譯成英文:

7. The letter is written by Tom.
8. The work was finished by the children.
9. The question is asked by them.

若以例句 1 變到例句 7 做個比較,就會發現到是這個樣子:

passive

想想看一: 其中的 written, finished, asked 均是為「 過去分詞 」。試問,和例句 1~3 比較,除了「過去分詞」外,還有哪些字,你覺得比較特殊的呢?

 

想想看二: 對於這種新學到的表達方式,是否有點概念了呢?試著依照課本句型表的模式,幫例句 7~9 「被動態句子」寫出它們的句型:

主 詞

 

 

 

行為者

‧‧‧

 

再舉幾個例子變化:

10. The boy opens the windows every morning. (主動句)

The windows are opened by the boy every morning. (被動句)

(注意看「沒有移動的」有哪些字?)

 

11. Our Chinese teacher grew the tree when I studied here. (主動句)

The tree was grown by our Chinese teacher when I studied here. (被動句)

(注意看「沒有移動的」有哪些字?)

 

12. My father washes the car every Sunday. (主動句)

The car is washed by my father every Sunday. (被動句)

(注意看「沒有移動的」有哪些字?)

 

想想看三: 請將下列各句改為「被動態」。 ( 注意是現在式,還是過去式 。)

1. Tony ate her apple.

2. The police officer catches the thief.

3. Seven people pulled down the big tree yesterday.

4. The two sisters share the pizza and the steak.

5. The boss invites ten important people to come tonight.

 

再來看看底下四個句子的比較:

( 現在單純式 )

13.

The work

is finished

by me.

 

( 過去單純式 )

14.

The work

was finished

by me

yesterday.

( 未來單純式 )

15.

The work

will be finished

by me

tomorrow.

( 現在完成式 )

16.

The work

has been finished

by me.

 

 

想想看四: 從上述例句 13~16 你是否能歸納出,在「被動態」句中的「動詞時態」是表現在哪裡呢?

 

想想看五: 請將下列各句改為「被動態」。 ( 注意看動詞時態,並比較和 上一個練習 有何不同?)

1. Mr. Su will paint these walls white.

2. Your uncle has taken the money away.

3. My brother will fix the CD player this weekend.

4. The farmers sold the land to the rich businessman.

 

注意事項

A.

by 是為「介詞」,故其後須用 受格

B.

原來的動詞既已變為「 過去分詞 」,則各種時態的變化(如現在進行式、過去式、未來式、現在完成式等),均是表現在 be 。如例句 11 和其它兩句(例句 10 12 )不同,是為「過去式」,則在改為「被動態」時, be 也要改為「過去式」的 was were 。例句 15 是「未來式」,所以 be 要改為 will be ;例句 16 是「現在完成式」,所以 be 要改為 has been

C.

被動態中既然有 be ,則它的否定句、疑問句、簡答句的寫法,就和 第一冊 所學過的 含有 be 的句子 一樣。但 若被動態的句子中,有其它的助動詞,如 can, will, should, could 等時,則其否定句、疑問句、簡答句的寫法,就和 can 一樣 ,請參考底下例句 17

17. (肯定句) The question can be answered easily.
  (否定句) The question can't be answered easily.
  (疑問句) Can the question be answered easily?

D.

by 後是接 people, everyone, someone ( 某人 ) 等無法明確指出行為者時,通常都是省略

 

其實仔細看 7~9 例句,應可以發現到,那樣子的被動態語氣,在平時的日常生活中,根本就很少會用到,大不了就是像「老師,那扇窗戶的玻璃被小明打破了」那樣的句子而已,但底下的句子就經常會用到、聽到,也是同學在學習的過程中, 經常會犯錯之處,須特別注意

18. 門壞了。
19.
車禍可以避免。
20.
這件事情要好好的做。
21.
這位校長很受學生喜愛。

讓我們仔細來研究這些句子:

18 句:「門」並非是自己壞了,顯然是「 被弄壞 」的,故仍須用被動態。

19 句:「車禍」並非是自己要去「避免」,而是須「 被人避免 」,故仍須用被動態。

20 句:「這件事情」不可能是自己要去「做」,而是須「 被人做 」,故仍須用被動態。

21 句:「這位校長」並非是自己喜愛自己,而是「 被學生喜愛 」的,故仍須用被動態。

 

想想看六: 參考 例句 4~6 ,比較看看,例句 18~21 若翻譯成英文,為何較容易犯錯?例句 18~21 的中文都少了一個什麼中文字?

 

從以上的比較可以得知,一個句子是否應使用被動態表達,應視其內含意思來決定,而不是取決於其中文的字面文字。故我們可以得到底下的結論:

若中文的內含意思有「被動」的含意,其英文即須使用被動態 而這種情形通常都是在 by 後的行為者是 people, everyone, someone 或等字時(參考注意事項 D 。故例句 18~21 的英文應是:

18_1. The door is broken.

(因不知是誰弄壞的,故 by someone 省略 。)

19_1. Accidents can be avoided.

(「車禍」本來就是每個人都應避免的,故 by everyone by people 省略 。)

20_1. The thing has to be done well.

(「這件事情」是需要被所須負責的人做好,故 by someone 省略 。)

21_1. The headmaster is loved by the students.

這是「被動態」最常見的使用情形。


想想看七: 來個練習吧!試著將下列各句翻譯成英文。

1. 信是我寄的。

2. 那支昂貴的手機昨天被 Jack 買走了。

3. 那個婦人將被送到醫院。

4. 簡單的事常容易被人遺忘。

5. 那些漂亮的洋裝是由這家工廠所製造的。

 

想想看八: 請依上、下文意,選出最適當答案。本單元練習,包含了各種動詞時態與動詞形式(如不定詞、動名詞等)使用。

1. When little John entered his home, his mother     dinner for the family in the kitchen.

(A) makes  

(B) made  

(C) is making  

(D) was making

 

2. He needs     for the math test tomorrow. Mr. Chen says it isn't easy to pass.

(A) studies  

(B) studied  

(C) to study  

(D) is studied

 

3. Parents usually     about their children even when they grow up.

(A) worry  

(B) are worrying  

(C) have worried  

(D) will worry

 

4. Windy: When     the basketball game     , Ted?
  Ted: At 8:20.

(A) will; start  

(B) has; started  

(C) is; started  

(D) is; starting

 

5. Tracy: Who     the rabbit to the classroom?
  Johnson: Jay did.

(A) brings  

(B) brought  

(C) is bringing  

(D) will bring

 

6. Teacher: Be sure that all the trash     up before you leave.
Students: No problem, Ms. Wu.

(A) cleans  

(B) is cleaned  

(C) has cleaned  

(D) is cleaning

 

7.     is good exercise. Even when you are sixty years old, it is still suitable ( 合適的 ) for you.

(A) Swim  

(B) Swimming  

(C) Having swum  

(D) Be swum

 

8. Cathy: This is really a wonderful book. I     it several times.
  Fred: Is it so good? Lend it to me, please.

(A) read  

(B) am reading  

(C) have read  

(D) will read

 

9. Mom: OK, we can go now. I     everything for the picnic.
  Dad: Let's say "Thank you" to our dear mom, children.

(A) am preparing  

(B) will prepare  

(C) am prepared  

(D) have prepared

 

10. The little boy cried out when he     the bad news that his mother got hurt in the accident.

(A) has told  

(B) will tell  

(C) was told  

(D) was telling

 

11. Aunt: Wow! How nice the picture is!
  Mary: It     by one of my classmates in Kenting last week.

(A) was taking  

(B) has taken  

(C) will take  

(D) was taken

 

12. Daniel     music very much. There are a lot of CDs in his room.

(A) loves  

(B) is loved  

(C) loving  

(D) to love

 

13. (Father is telling his son.) This is the last time I tell you. Never let the same mistake     again, or I'll get angry.

(A) makes  

(B) be making  

(C) be made  

(D) have made

 

14. Yesterday night, he     his guitar when I saw him.

(A) played  

(B) was playing  

(C) has played  

(D) will play

 

15. Our school tennis team practices hard every day. I'm sure they     the game in the next game.

(A) will win  

(B) have won  

(C) was won  

(D) are winn ing

 

 

 

 

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