第五冊第 4 單元 情緒動詞和情緒形容詞

 

標題句: The movie interests me.

I'm interested in the movie.

The movie is interesting to me.

結 構:情緒動詞及情緒形容詞

 

形容詞的使用早在第一冊中即已學過,就如:

1. He is a tall boy.
2. They are good books.

 

但分詞當形容詞用,卻是第一次聽到。在 第一冊 中,即已學過「 現在分詞 」( V-ing ),它是用於進行式中:

3. He is watching TV.
4. They are
reading in the classroom.
5. Miss Lin is
driving her car.
6. The dog is
eating its lunch.

 

以上每一句的動作 watching, reading, driving, eating 均是由主詞「主動」做的,即使在第 6 句中的主詞是 the dog 也是一樣。從這些例子中,我們可以得到一個概念,即「 V-ing 具有主動的含意 」。

但在第五冊第一課中所介紹的「 被動態 」,句中所使用的是「 過去分詞 」:

7. The window was broken .
8. The book was
written by Mary Brown.
9. The car is
stopped by the policeman.
10. The question is
asked by them.

 

以上的四個句子中動詞 broken, written, stopped, asked 均不是由主詞所做,都是「被做」的,故我們可以說「 過去分詞含有被動的含意 」。

由以上的說明,我們可以得到底下的 結論 ( 從上面的例子歸納出的結論,很簡單,但卻很好用。)

現在分詞含有主動的含意
過去分詞含有被動的含意

1200 字彙表 中,可以加 -ing -ed ,而作為形容詞用者有

現在分詞( V-ing

過去分詞( pp

boring  令人感到厭倦的
exciting
 令人感到興奮、刺激的
interesting
 令人感到有趣的;有趣的
surprising
 令人感到驚訝的
tiring
 令人感到疲倦的
touching
 令人感到同情的;引起憐憫的

bored  感到厭倦的
excited
 感到興奮、刺激的
interested
 感到有趣的
surprised
 感到驚訝的
tired
 感到疲倦的
touched
 感到同情的;受感動的

 

2000 字彙表 中,可以加 -ing -ed ,而作為形容詞用者,又可增加了

現在分詞( V-ing

過去分詞( pp

confusing  令人感到迷糊的;令人弄不清楚的
embarrassing
  令人感到尷尬的
frightening
 令人感到害怕的

confused  感到迷糊的;弄不清楚的
embarrassed
  感到尷尬的
frightened
 感到害怕的

現在用幾個句子來說明所謂「主動」與「被動」的含意:

11. This is an interesting book to me.

(這對我來說,是一本有趣的書。)


12. I am
interested in this book.

(我對這本書感到有興趣。)

 

在第 11 句中,是書的 內容本身 即是有趣 含有「主動」的意味,故用 inter esting 。但在第 12 句中,我是因為該書的內容,而「感到有興趣」,對我來說,是 書影響,才「感到有趣」的, 含有「被動」的意味,故用 interested

13. This was really an exciting game.

(這真是一場精彩刺激的比賽。)


14. I was
excited about the game.

(我對這場比賽感到興奮刺激。)

 

在第 13 句中,是比賽的 內容本身 即是精彩刺激 含有「主動」的意味,故用 exciting 。但在第 14 句中,我是因為該場比賽打得十分精彩,而「感到有興奮刺激」,對我來說,是 比賽影響,才「感到興奮刺激」的, 含有「被動」的意味,故用 excited

常見錯誤: 從以上的兩組例句中,有人會誤認為「現在分詞」是用來形容「事物」,「過去分詞」是用來形容「人」,其實不然,那要看句中意思來決定:

15. John is a boring man.

John 是個令人厭煩的人。)


16. We're all
bored with boring John.

(我們都對惹人厭的 John 感到厭煩。)

 

17. Boring teachers make bored students.

(令人感到厭煩的老師,會產生感到厭煩的的學生。)

 

在第 15 句中, John 這個人 本身 的談吐作為即是令人生厭 含有「主動」的意味,故用 boring 。但在第 16 句中,我們是因為那惹人厭的 John ,而「感到厭煩的」,對我們來說,是 John 影響,才「感到厭煩」的, 含有「被動」的意味,故用 bored 。這樣的比對在抄自 Michael Swan 所著的 Practical English Usage (Oxford: 1995) ,例句 17 中看得更明顯。

對初學者來說,要產生以上的「主動」和「被動」的認知,可能是件不容易的事,但還可以透過底下的歸類,而產生另外的概念:

想想看一: 依上面兩個「現在分詞」、「過去分詞」對照表中,你是否看出,在左邊欄的現在分詞中文裡,都有哪些共同的字?

 

想想看二: 在右邊的過去分詞欄裡,中文字都有哪些共同的字?

 

必須熟記的片語: 這個部分可以說是分詞當詞形容詞用中,最令台灣學生感到困擾的事,經常弄錯,務必背熟。

1200 字彙表範圍者:
be interested in ...
:對 ‧‧‧ 感興趣(本片語的 interested 常忘記加 ed
be excited about ...
:對 ‧‧‧ 感到興奮
be surprised at ...
:對 ‧‧‧ 感到驚訝
be bored with ...
:對 ‧‧‧ 感到厭煩
be tired of ...
:對 ‧‧‧ 感到厭倦

 

2000 字彙表範圍者:
be embarrassed at ...
:對 ‧‧‧ 感到尷尬
be confused about ...
:對 ‧‧‧ 弄不清楚
be frighted at ...
:對 ‧‧‧ 感到害怕

在學會了「現在分詞」、「過去分詞」當形容詞用後,還必須弄清楚這些「分詞」的「動詞」;在實際的考試題目裡,這些「分詞」常和它們的「動詞」混在一起出現,這也是造成學生在這一項上被扣分的原因之一, 所以現在非得弄清楚這三個的不同和用法不可 。現在就把屬 1200 字彙表的分詞和它們的動詞,再做一個表比較一下:

動詞( V

現在分詞( V-ing

過去分詞( pp

bore  使 ... 感到厭倦的
excite
 使 ... 感到興奮、刺激的
interest
 使 ... 感到有趣的
surprise
 使 ... 感到驚訝的
tire
 使 ... 感到疲倦的
trouble
 使 ... 感到苦惱的

boring  令人感到厭倦的
exciting
 令人感到興奮、刺激的
interesting
 令人感到有趣的;有趣的
surprising
 令人感到驚訝的
tiring
 令人感到疲倦的
troubling
 令人感到苦惱的

bored  感到厭倦的
excited
 感到興奮、刺激的
interested
 感到有趣的
surprised
 感到驚訝的
tired
 感到疲倦的
troubled
 感到苦惱的

想想看三: 在這類字的「動詞」用法中,對照中文意思,都會有哪些字出現?

 

這三者之間的關係,我們可以用一個例子來說明:(這三句的內含意思,其實是一樣的。)

18. The book interests me.

(這本書 使 感到有興趣 ;這本書引起了我的興趣。)


19. The book
is interesting to me.

(這本書對我來說, 令人感到有趣 ;這本書引起了我的興趣。)


20. I
am interested in the book.

(我對這本書 感到有興趣 。)

 

從這三句的中英文對照,即可看到,記好上面的「動詞」、「現在分詞」、「過去分詞」表,應該可以協助你解決混淆問題。

 

想想看四: 請依上、下文意,選出最適當的答案。

1. Chuck: Did you watch the tennis game between our school and Wanlai Junior High School yesterday? It was really     .

Frank: Yes, we especially ( 尤其是 ) liked David. He was really a good player.

(A) excites  

(B) exciting  

(C) excited

 

2. Mom: Why do you study English every day? Don't you have math or other subject homework?

Son: Yes, I do. But I'm     in it, and I hope I can go to the USA some day.

(A) interests  

(B) interesting  

(C) interested

 

3. (At the birthday party)
  Fanny: My dear Wendy, open it. It's for you.

Wendy: (Open the box.) Wow! What a beautiful doll. It really      me.

(A) surprises  

(B) surprising  

(C) surprised

 

4. Little John: Mom, can I not go to the music class?
  Mom: Why not? Isn't the teacher good enough?
  Little John: No. I just feel it is     .

(A) bores  

(B) boring  

(C) bored

 

5. Father: Where's Tommy?
  Mother: He's sleeping in his room.
  Father: Sleeping? It's 9:30 now. Wake him up.
  Mother: He didn't go to bed until 2:30 this morning. He's too     .

(A) tires  

(B) tiring  

(C) tired

 

6. Mr. Liu's girlfriend wants him to have lunch with her, but his boss wants him to go to Tainan on business now. To go or to stay? The problem     him.

(A) troubles  

(B) troubling  

(C) troubled

 

事實上哪些句子要用「動詞」而不是「分詞」,並沒有想像中的難以辨別,只要看看含有空格的句子或子句裡,是否缺少「動詞」即可;若空格前沒有「動詞」,那這一格就一定是用「動詞」,若空格前已有「動詞」(例如已有 be ),那這一格就一定是用「分詞」。但不要忘記,上述的六個練習題,都只有三個選項。

在實際上的考試中,每題的選項總是會有四個,而不是只有三個而已,所以若再加上第四個選項,那題目的難度就會提高,尤其是當句中的時間是「過去」,或「動名詞( V-ing )當主詞用」時:

 

想想看五: 請依上、下文意,選出最適當的答案。

1. Walking too much will     you, too.

(A) tire  

(B) tiring  

(C) tired  

(D) to tire

 

2. This morning Mr. Huang got a book, and he hopes it can     his son.

(A) interest  

(B) interesting  

(C) interested  

(D) to interest

 

3. My favorite basketball team lost the game last Sunday, and it     me very much.

(A) surprises  

(B) surprising  

(C) surprised  

(D) to surprise

 

4.     learners usually learn things more slowly. So, you have to cheer yourself up.

(A) Bore  

(B) Boring  

(C) Bored  

(D) To Bore

 

5. Do you know asking you to do the work isn't     you? It's good for you, instead ( 相反地 ).

(A) trouble  

(B) troubling  

(C) troubled  

(D) to trouble

 

6.     the star of longevity ( 壽星 ) at the birthday party is a trick but a lot of fun.

(A) Surprise  

(B) Surprising  

(C) Surprised  

(D) Surprises

 

若把所有已學過的動詞形式都混在一起呈現,難度當然又是高了很多:

想想看六: 請依上、下文意,選出最適當的答案。

1. Simon: Why does Tommy look so     today?

Scott: Don't you know? He gets his first 100 on this English test. He never got more than 85 before.

(A) excite  

(B) excited  

(C) exciting  

(D) to excite

 

2. Nancy practices     English as often as she could. She hopes she can pass the exam ( 考試 ) next month and go to England to study there.

(A) speaking  

(B) spoke  

(C) to speak  

(D) speak

 

3. Molly and her brothers are planning     fishing on the weekend.

(A) to go  

(B) will go  

(C) are gone  

(D) have gone

 

4. After Bruce finishes his work,     Mrs. Speakers that we will start to go to her house.

(A) is calling  

(B) has called  

(C) will call  

(D) call

 

5. Arthur is a very     person. We always have a good time when we are together with him.

(A) to interest  

(B) interests  

(C) interesting  

(D) interested

 

6. Before we leave, being sure that we     everything ready is important.

(A) are getting  

(B) have got  

(C) are got  

(D) will get

 

7. Dick: I feel this program is     . How do you think, Elliot

Elliot: I agree with you. Why not turn off the TV and go out for bicycle riding?

(A) bore  

(B) bores  

(C) boring  

(D) bored

 

8. They're going to go     for the big dinner. There will be nine people coming to our home tonight.

(A) shop  

(B) shops  

(C) shopped  

(D) shopping

 

想想看七: 再來一篇綜合練習,看看你是否能綜合應用?

Each of you shared the experience. When you   (1)   you would go to school, you got   (2)   . The first day at school was usually   (3)   , and when you went back home, your parents would ask you "Do you   (4)   a good time at school?", "Do you make any new friends?" or something else.

Time passed. You felt homework got more and more, and you had to spend more time   (5)   it. More and more classes or subjects became   (6)   . Every time you   (7)   why you didn't like to study them, your answers were usually they were too hard. However, was it true? Of course not. You   (8)   much more time on TV or computer games than on your lessons.

Now you   (9)   in Grade 9, and you will have an important test next year. Change yourself ( 你自己 ) from now. If ( 假如 ) you have any questions about your lessons,   (10)   your classmates or teachers, and they will help you. If you do so, good grades are always waiting for you.

1. (A) told   (B) were telling   (C) were told   (D) had told
2. (A) excite
  (B) excited   (C) exciting   (D) to excite
3. (A) interest
  (B) interested   (C) interesting   (D) to interest
4. (A) have
  (B) has   (C) had   (D) will have
5. (A) do
  (B) does   (C) to do   (D) doing
6. (A) bore
  (B) bored   (C) boring   (D) to bore
7. (A) asked
  (B) to ask   (C) have asked   (D) were asked
8. (A) spend
  (B) spent   (C) will spend   (D) were spent
9. (A) is
  (B) are   (C) were   (D) was
10. (A) ask
  (B) will ask   (C) have asked   (D) asked

 

想想看八: 著將下列各句翻譯成英文。

1. Allen 昨天開了一場令人驚奇的派對。

2. 你兒子對於這張照片,一點都沒興趣。

3. 為那場考試讀書,並不是件令人疲累的事。

4. Paul 的父母對於他的英語成績感到很驚訝嗎?

5. 在看完了那場緊張刺激的棒球賽之後,他感到很興奮。

 

 

 

 

 

 

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