第六冊 2單元 表時間的連接詞 when, while, as 的用法

 

標題句:When we got to Mary's home, she was watching TV.

結 構:連接詞 while, when, as 的用法

 

若我們要說明兩個動作或兩種情況在同時發生,有三個連接詞可用,它們分別是 when, while, as,它們的對應中文,都是「當‧‧‧的時候」。有些情況,它們是可互通使用;但有些情況下,它們在使用時機上,是有不同的。參考 Michael Swan (2004) Practical English Usage,分別加以說明:

 

when, while, as 的共通之處:

一、這三個連接詞所連接的子句,和以前所學過的 because, before, after,以及第五冊連接詞 if 一樣,可放句首,也可放在句尾;放在句首時,和其後的主要子句之間,需要加上「逗號」,例:

1. When I was window-shopping, I saw Amy were talking with Sue in front of a convenience store.

(當我在逛街的時候,我看到 Amy Sue 正在一家便利商店前聊天。)

或寫成→I saw Amy were talking with Sue in front of a convenience store when I was window-shopping.

 

二、用這三個連接詞所連接的子句中的兩個動作,「發生的時間較長的」,通常會用「進行式」表示,例:

2. When we got to Mary's home, she was watching TV.(當我們到 Mary 家時,她正在看電視。)

→兩個動作比起來,顯然「看電視」的時間,比「到達」要來得長很多。

 

三、as while 所接子句中的動詞,也可以是「單純式」,但需要是有持續性的動作或狀態,較常見用在此情形的動詞有 sit, lie, grow 等:

3. I often got up at 6:00 in the morning while I studied in Kaohsiung.(當我在高雄讀書的時候,我常常是早上六點起床。)

→「在高雄讀書」,顯然需得一段長時間不可。

 

when, while, as 之間有何差別?

一、as 常用於接「較不重要的訊息」,且其所接的子句,也較常放在「句首」的位置。但何謂「較不重要的訊息」,並未有公認的標準,例:

4. As I was writing my homework in the classroom, George was eating his breakfast.

(當我在教室裡寫功課的時候,George 正在吃他的早餐。)

 

二、前後所連接兩個子句中的動作,都屬於「持續性的動作或狀態」者,連接詞用 as while,這時所用的動詞時態,「單純式」與「進行式」均可,例:

5. While Mom made dinner in the kitchen, I watched the cartoon, Atashin'chi, in the living room.

(當媽媽在廚房做晚飯時,我正在客廳裡看「我們這一家」卡通。)

 

也可以寫成 While I watched the cartoon, Atashin'chi, in the living room, Mom made dinner in the kitchen.

(當我在客廳裡看「我們這一家」卡通時,媽媽正在廚房做晚飯。)

 

三、若前後兩子句中的兩個動作是「交叉影響」、「互相影響」時,則連接詞用as,例:

6. As Tom got older, he worked harder.Tom 年紀愈大,工作愈賣力。)

→「年紀」與「工作賣力」,呈現正相關,相互影響著。

 

四、當談到與個人年紀有關的時間時,連接詞用when,例:

7. When I was very young, I didn't like school lessons at all.(當我年紀很小的時候,我對學校功課一點興趣也沒有。)

8. Both of Helen's parents died when she was only ten years old.(當 Helen 只有十歲的時候,她的父母就雙亡了。)

 

五、若前後兩子句中的兩個動作是「短動作」時(有時在連接詞前會有 just),則連接詞用 as when,例:

9. As I opened the door of my house, I heard a strange sound.(當我打開家門時,我聽到一個很奇怪的聲音。)

10. You left me just when I needed you most.(就當我最需要你時,你卻離開了我。)

 

想想看一:請依據上、下文意,選出最適當的答案(連接詞 after, before, because, if, though, when, while, as 的綜合應用)。

1. _____ my daughter studies math very hard, she still can't pass each math test.

 (A) When (B) Though (C) Because (D) After

2. Mr. Wang often takes a walk with his lovely dog in the evening _____ he takes a bath.

 (A) before (B) while (C) if (D) as

3. Last Friday, during the test, Harry took out the Chinese book quickly _____ the teacher looked out of the window.

 (A) if (B) when (C) though (D) before

4. _____ the sky gets darker and darker, more and more families turn on their lights in their houses.

 (A) Before (B) If (C) As (D) While

5. _____ Mrs. Liao is driving the car, her young daughter is playing with her favorite Teddy Bear.

 (A) While (B) Because (C) If (D) After

6. Jerry's brother is watering his flowers in the yard _____ it hasn't rained for a long time this summer.

 (A) when (B) before (C) though (D) because

 

想想看二:試著將下列各句翻譯成英文。

1.昨天早上,當我在浴室裡刷牙的時候,我弟弟還在他的房間裡睡覺。

2.當你有小孩的時候,你就會發現到,照顧孩子是件不容易的事。

3.當火車正進入車站的時候,你只能站在這條黃線的後面等待。

4.電話鈴聲經常是當你不在客廳時響起。

 

 

 

 

 

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