第六冊 10單元 介詞的使用彙整(一)

 

 

結 構:介詞的使用彙整(一)

 

被列為「國民中小學最基本之 1200 字詞」內的「介詞」,總共有 41 個,分別是 about, above, across, after, along, around, at, before, behind, below, beside, between, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, in back of, in front of, inside, into, like, near, next to, of, off, on, out, out of, outside, over, since, than, to, under, until, up, with, without。從本單元起,將依字母順序復習國中階段,可能已學過的各介詞用法;遇有必要處,亦會連結到相關網頁參考。

 

about

一、最常見的對應中文是「關於」:

例:
1. She told me something
about your son last night.

(她昨晚告訴我一些有關你兒子的事。)


2. I got a book
about how to plant vegetables this morning.

(今早我買了一本有關種植蔬菜的書。)


3. Henry wrote a song
about the story between him and his girlfriend

Henry 寫了一首關於他和他女朋友故事的歌。)

 

註:例句 3 4 的用法,常見於說明書信、報章雜誌、歌曲、電影、戲劇,甚至於電動玩具的內容中。)

 

二、be happy about ...(對 ... 感到高興)
  
be excited about ...(對...感到興奮)
  
be worried about ...(對...感到憂慮;對...感到擔心)

例:
4. It's natural for parents to
be worried about their children.

(父母親擔心孩子,是很自然的事。)


5. He
is happy about his nice work.

(他對於他美好的作品感到高興。)

 

6. We are all excited about the news that Wang Jian-min plans to come back to Taiwan next month.

(我們都很興奮,王建民計畫下個月回台灣。)

 

三、 How about ...?
  
= What about ...?...如何?)

例:
7.
How about going to a movie tonight?

(今晚去看個電影如何?)
= 8.
What about going to a movie tonight?

 

四、其它與形容詞連結使用,請按這裡

五、其它與動詞連結使用,請按這裡

 

 


 

above

一、「在 ... 的上面」,可用於指在某物之上,也可用於指在某一數字、數量、水準之上如在冰點(0°C)、沸點、海平面等。另一同義詞 over相反詞 below

例:
9. There's a note
above/over the door of my room.

在我房間門有一張標語。)


10. He got a big money
above 100,000 last week.

(他上個星期進帳超過十萬。)

 

二、above all:最重要的是

例:
11.
Above all, you have to pass the test first.

最重要的是,你必須先通過這個考試。)

 


 

across

最簡單的對應中文是「橫越」,也就是從某個範圍的一端,到另一端的意思(請參考圖例說明)。其後有時也可視需要,加上其它的介詞,如 at/to 等。

例:
12. The two old persons walked
across the street slowly.

(那兩個老人家,慢慢地走路橫過街道。)

 

13. The child ran across to his father who sat on the bench on the other side of the park.

(那個男孩跑步到坐在公園另一頭長凳上的爸爸那邊。)

 


 

after

一、在 ... 之後:指時間上的先後而言。相反詞是 before

例:
14. Repeat
after me, please.

(請跟在我之後,複誦一次。)


15. You have to write your address
after your name.

(你必須在你的名字之後,寫上你的地址。)


16.
After dinner, he usually watches TV news for an hour.

晚餐,他通常會看一個鐘頭的電視。)


17.
After two days, she left for Japan.

兩天之後,她動身前往日本。)
= Two days later, she left for Japan.

 

:同樣是講「在一段時間之後」,after later 是用來談論「過去的事件」,而 in 則是用來談論「未來的事件」。
例:
18. He'
ll be here in an hour.

(他一小時後,會出現在這裡。)

 

二、終究、畢竟:

例:
19.
After all, you will help her no matter what she did before.

(不管她以前做了什麼,終究你還是會幫她的忙。)


20. Don't forget he is your student,
after all.

(別忘了,他畢竟是你的學生。)

 

三、其它與動詞連結使用,請按這裡

 


 

along沿著

例:

21. If you drive along this street, you'll see the store you want to go at your right side.

(假如你沿著這條街一直開,你就會在你的右手邊看到你要去的那家店。)

 


 

around

一、到處;(在較大範圍內)向各處:

例:
22. Mr. Black likes to travel
around the world on summer vacation.

Black 先生喜歡在暑假時,環遊世界。)


23. A lot of students enjoy running around the playground during their break time.

(很多學生喜歡在下課休息時間,在操場上跑來跑去。)

 

二、在附近:

例:
24. On my way to school this morning, I saw a strange man walking
around the store.

(今早上學途中,我在那家店附近看到一個奇怪的人。)

 

三、環繞:

例:
25. The earth moves
around the sun.

(地球圍著太陽轉。)


26. He put the towel
around his body and walked out of the bathroom.

(他用浴巾包住他的身體走出走出浴室。)

 

四、大約:

例:
25. Let's meet at the station
around 7:00.

(那我們就大約七點時,在火車站見。)


26. The building will be finished
around the end of the year.

(這棟建築物將在年底前後完成。)

 


 

at

一、at + 地點:所謂「點」是指一個建物處所,或一個小落腳處、場合等,這是 at 非常常見的用法。

例:
27. Let's meet
at the station around 7:00.

(那我們就大約七點時,火車站見。)


28. We all stood
at the door and said goodbye to my father.

(我們都站門口向爸爸說再見。)


29. I saw Mary
at Jean's birthday party.

(我 Jean 的慶生會上,看到了 Mary。)

 

二、at + 時刻:所謂「時刻」是指「幾點幾分」之意;也並不一定是要指明「幾點幾分」,有類似之意者,也是用 at

例:
30. The first class at this school starts
at 8:15.

(這所學校的第一節課是 8:15 開始。)


31.
At the moment you called, I was taking a bath.

你打電話來的那個時候,我正在洗澡。)

 

三、at night:這和 in the morning/afternoon/evening 不同,請注意。

例:
32. I usually get my e-mails
at night.

(我通常是晚上的時候收電子郵件。)

 

四、at + 年齡:用以指某人做某事時的年齡。

例:
33. He got his first job
at 25.

(他 25 歲時獲得第一份工作。)

 

五、at + 目標(人或物):這種用法,常和動詞連用

例:
34. I still couldn't hear though my sister
shouted at me then.

(雖然我妹妹當時對著我大聲喊叫,我還是沒有聽到。)


35.
Look at the baby. It has been smiling at you for a long time.

注意看那個嬰兒,它一直對著你笑好久了。)

 

六、at + 一種狀態、情形或持續的活動:

例:
36. She is
at school from 8:00 a.m. to 16:10 p.m.

(早上八點到下午四點十分,是她的上學時間。)


37. Do not play any online games
at work.

上班時間,禁止打線上遊戲。)

 

七、其它與形容詞連結使用,請按這裡

八、其它與動詞連結使用,請按這裡

 


 

before ... 之前。用法和 after 一樣,只是意思相反而已。

例:
38. Please come back home
before dinner.

(請晚餐之前回到家。)


39. We have to finish
before 6:00.

(我們必須六點之前完成。)

 


 

behind在(人 / 事物)之後。也可以等於 in back of ...。另請和 after 比較。

例:
40. Who's the girl
behind Henry?

Henry 之後的那個女孩是誰?)


41. Our school is
behind my home.

(我們學校我家的後面。)


42. I'm
behind other classmates in class in math.

(我在數學方面落後其它同學。)

 


 

below ... 底下。是 above 的相反詞。

例:
43. Do not write any words
below my name.

我的名字底下,不要寫任何字。)


44. Each girl's skirt must be
below her knees.

(每個女孩子的裙子,必須要長過膝蓋。)

 

below under 都是「在 ... 之下」之意,有時也互通;但若是指「正下方」,或是含有「覆蓋」之意的「在 ... 之下」時,則用 under;若不是指「正下方」,或指「某個度量單位底下」,則是用 below

例:
45. What are you wearing
under your jacket?

(你夾克之下,穿什麼呢?)

──人的身體是包在夾克之內的。


46. The three people stopped 250m
below the top of the mountain.

(那三個人山頂 250 公尺處停了下來。)

──那三個人所停下的地點,絕非在山頂的正下方,否則就會和孫悟空一樣,被壓在山腳下了。

 


 

beside在(人 / 事物)旁邊,等於 next to

例:
47. You can sit
beside Tom.

(你可以坐 Tom 旁邊。)

 


 

between ... 之間

between 常見用於 between A and B,因 between 是介詞,所以句型中的 A B,都得用「受格」。

例:

48. My home is between a flower store and a convenience store on Fu-wun Road.

(我家位復文路一家花店一家超商之間。)

 
49. This car costs
between 750 and 800 thousand dollars.

(這部車價值 75 80 之間。)


50. You can plant some flowers
between the trees.

(你可以之間種些花。)

 


 

by

一、被:用於「被動態」中

例:
51. The car was bought
by Mr. Robinson.

(那部車是 Robinson 先生買去的。)


52. I like eating the fish which is cooked
by Ms. Lee.

(我喜歡吃 Lee 小姐烹調的魚。)

 

二、借助於:

例:
53. I go to school
by bike every day.

(我每天騎腳踏車上學。)


54. The Lu family went to the Green Island
by air last year.

(盧家一行人,去年搭飛機去綠島。)


55. The boss wants me to tell him
by e-mail.

(老闆要我 e-mail 告訴他。)

 

三、在 ... 旁邊:

例:
56. You can use the telephone
by the window if you need.

(假如你有需要的話,窗戶電話可自行使用。)


57. Please come and sit
by me.

(請過來坐在我的旁邊。)

 

四、經過(人 / 物):

例:
58. He
goes by a church every morning on my way to school.

(他每天上學時,都會經過一間教堂。)

 

59. Surprisingly, Tom didn't say anything when he walked by me yesterday.

(好驚訝喔,Tom 昨天經過我的旁邊,竟然一句話也沒說。)

 

五、以連續的單位、批量或程度計:

例:
60. He is getting better
day by day.

(他的情況一天一天地改善著。)


61. The students got into the classroom
two by two.

(學生們兩個兩個地進入教室。)

 

六、根據:by + 事物

例:
62. It's five o'clock
by my watch.

根據我的錶,現在是五點。)

 

63. I could tell by the look on his face that something bad had happened.

根據他的臉色,我可以知道已發生了不好的事。)

 


 

down

一、由上而下:

例:
64. She walked
down the stairs slowly.

(她緩步地樓梯。)

 

二、沿著;順著:

例:

65. You'll see the movie theater at your right side if you walk down the street.

(假如你順著這條街走下去,你就會在你的右手邊看到那家戲院。)

 


 

during ... 期間

例:

66. Mr. and Mrs. Chen often take a trip with their children during the summer vacation.

先生和陳太太,常常暑假期間,帶著他們的孩子去旅行。)


67. The phone suddenly rang
during the meal.

吃飯的時候,電話鈴聲突然響起。)

 


 

except除了 ... 之外。except 後的受詞被排除在外

例:
68. All of you can go
except John.

除了 John 之外,你們都可以去。)

── 也就是說 John 不能去之外,其他的人都可以去。


69. The restaurant is open every day
except Wednesday.

除了星期三之外,這家餐廳每天都有營業。)

 


 

綜合練習:請依上、下文意,選出最正確的答案。

 

1. After work, I like sitting     the river near our house to relax (放輕鬆) myself.

(A) around 

(B) along 

(C) before 

(D) by

 

2. Tim: Who is your sister in that class?

 Nickie: The girl who sits     Jessie and Betty.

(A) between 

(B) except 

(C) during 

(D) beside

 

3. Peter: Why not ride our bicycles     the road tomorrow early morning? It must be beautiful at that time.

 Shirley: You're right. There are a lot of tall trees here and there.

(A) across 

(B) along 

(C) below 

(D) about

 

4. There's a swimming match next month at this lake. Everyone has to swim     the lake from here.

(A) behind 

(B) after 

(C) beside 

(D) across

 

5. Adam: I'm so excited. This is my first time to take an airplane.

Robert: So am I. Look! We're flying     the clouds. They look like a big, white blanket (地毯).

(A) before 

(B) down 

(C) above 

(D) during

 

6. The train we are taking is too slow, so we'll get there     8:30 p.m.

(A) between 

(B) around 

(C) below 

(D) beside

 

7. I can study well and get good grades on almost all the subjects     math. It is always hard for me.

(A) except 

(B) about 

(C) by 

(D) at

 

8. David: Where are we going to meet tomorrow afternoon?

Helen: Let's meet     the fast-food restaurant near the movie theater.

We can take our time to enjoy our lunch before going to the movie.

(A) by 

(B) at 

(C) down 

(D) before

 

9. Mom: Little Tommy, you must be sure to walk     your daddy, or you'll get lost on such a busy street.

 Tommy: Yes, Mom.

(A) after 

(B) along 

(C) behind 

(D) below

 

10. Tony: You've to get ready     5:20, or we can't catch the train.

  Jenny: Don't be worried. Just give me five more minutes, and I'll finish it.

(A) beside 

(B) during 

(C) above 

(D) before

 

11. My classmate, Emma, practices Chinese every day, and her Chinese is improving (改善) little     little.

(A) by 

(B) around 

(C) at 

(D) except

 

12. My son's English isn't good enough. He usually keeps a dictionary     him while he reads an English book.

(A) about 

(B) beside 

(C) during 

(D) before

 

13. Children usually like watching TV programs     rabbits.

(A) below 

(B) between 

(C) around 

(D) about

 

14.     getting off the bus, he walked to his office slowly.

(A) Before 

(B) After 

(C) Behind 

(D) About

 

15.     my stay in Taipei, I visited 101, the tallest building in the world.

(A) Along 

(B) Between 

(C) During 

(D) Around

 

16. We spent the whole day riding bikes     the town.

(A) by 

(B) around 

(C) beside 

(D) above

 

17. Basketball players have to play basketball     the rules.

(A) by 

(B) at 

(C) about 

(D) during

 

18. Our English teacher's house is about 300m away     the street.

(A) after 

(B) between 

(C) along 

(D) across

 

19. Mr. Robinson has worked in that office year     year since he was 22.

(A) along 

(B) after 

(C) before 

(D) behind

 

20. Look at the note     the picture. We've to pay first after we order what we want.

(A) behind 

(B) around 

(C) across 

(D) above

 

21. I would like to buy a car these days. However, it's hard for me to make a choice     the two colors. Red or white?

(A) during 

(B) across 

(C) between 

(D) below

 

22. Mark: What kind of book are you reading, Nancy?

  Nancy: I'm reading a book     American history.

(A) at 

(B) above 

(C) about 

(D) along

 

23.     the time I stayed in Penghu, I enjoyed eating at different sea-food restaurants every day.

(A) During 

(B) Along 

(C) After 

(D) Between

 

24. While camping, students like dancing or having a party     the bonfire (營火) at night.

(A) along 

(B) during 

(C) before 

(D) around

 

25. Mary met one of her classmates in senior high school     her sister's birthday party.

(A) except 

(B) at 

(C) beside 

(D) down

 

 

 

 

 

 

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