第六冊 11單元 介詞的使用彙整(二)

 

 

結 構:介詞的使用彙整(二)

 

本單元要說明的介詞包括有:for, from, in, in back of, in front of, inside, into, like, near, next to, of, off, on

for

一、為了:即使有時所對應的中文,不是「為了」之意,但若轉個彎,意思也可以通,這樣記起來就不會那麼吃力了。

例:
1. We should do something
for our country.

(我們要我們的國家做一些事。)


2. What can I do
for you?

慶生,我能你效勞嗎?)

 

二、表示接受某事物,或從某事物中受益的人:

例:
3. This present is
for you. Happy Birthday!

(這份禮物是要送給的,祝你生日快樂。)

── 可以想成「這份禮物是『為了』你才買的」。

 

4. Harry, there's a letter for you.

Harry, 有一封的信。)

── 可以想成「有一封『為了』要給你而寫的信」。

 

三、表示目的地或目標:

例:
5. He just left
for Taichung.

(他剛剛台中;他剛動身前往台中。)

── 可以想成「他『為了』要去台中而離開」。

 

6. Is this the bus for Puli?

(這是通往埔里的巴士嗎?)

── 可以想成「這部巴士是『為了』要到埔里而開」。

 

四、作為對某事物的代價:

例:
7. He bought his bicycle
for more than NT$3,000.

(他花了三仟多元買他那部腳踏車。)

── 可以想成「他『為了』要買腳踏車花了三仟多元」。

 

五、對 /事物 而言:這類用法常見於虛構主 It ... 開頭的句子中。

例:
8. It is important
for you to get up early.

來說,早起是重要的。)

 
9. It isn't easy
for me to make up my mind.

來說,要下決心是不容易的事。)

 

六、for + 一段時間:持續了一段時間。

例:
10. I've lived in Taoyuan
for 20 years.

(我已在桃園住了二十年了。)

── 從搬來到現在『持續』了二十年

 

for + 一段時間」是否和「現在完成式」連用,請參考這裡

 

七、其它與形容詞連結使用,請按這裡

 

八、其它與動詞連結使用,請按這裡

 


 

from

一、從 ...

例:
11. It takes me about 10 minutes to walk
from my home to here.

我家走到這邊,大約花我十分鐘的時間。)

── from A to B:從 A Bto 表示動作的方向。

 

12. He's on holiday from February 1.

(他二月一日開始放假。)

 

二、來自於 ...:其實也是「從」哪裡的概念。

例:
13. Mr. Martin
comes from Australia .

Martin 自於澳洲。)

 

三、用以區別兩地、兩人、兩事物:

例:
14. My book is
different from yours.

(我的書和你的不同。)


15. Can you
tell Mary from her sister?

(你分得清楚 Mary 和她的妹妹嗎?)

 

四、... away from ...:(在空間或時間上)離(某人 / 某物)某段距離

例:
16. The sea is about 1km
away from the hotel.

(那間旅館距離大海大約一公里。)


17. Keep the children
away from the busy street.

(讓小孩子遠離車輛多的馬路。)

 

五、其它與形容詞連結使用,請按這裡

 

六、其它與動詞連結使用,請按這裡

 


 

inin inside 的差別。

  請參考 inside

一、在 ... 裡面: 參考說明圖

例:
18. There are still several students
in the classroom after school.

(放學後,仍有幾個學生教室。)

 

二、in + 週、月、季、年:

例:
19. I was born
in 1959.

(我出生 1959 。)


20. Swimming is Allen's sport
in summer.

(游泳是 Allen 夏天最喜歡的運動。)

 

三、in + 衣物:穿戴衣物。

例:
21. Who is the boy
in a white shirt over there?

(在那邊穿著白襯衫的男孩子是誰?)

 

四、in + 媒體、手段、材料:使用某種媒體、手段、材料。

例:
22. This is an English class. Please answer my question
in English.

(這是英語課,請英語回答我的問題。)


23. Could you tell us what happened
in a few words?

(你能三言兩語,把發生的事情告訴我們嗎?)

 

五、表示某人或某事的狀態或狀況。

例:
24. My grandmother is
in poor health these years.

(我的祖母近幾年健康欠佳。)

 

六、in + 一段時間:在「一段時間」之後。未來式連用。( after 的用法不同,請參考 after in 用法比較。)

 

七、其它與形容詞連結使用,按這裡

 

八、其它與動詞連結使用,請按這裡


 

in back of ...(在 ... 之後)和 in front of ...(在 ... 之前):兩者互為相反詞,都是指「位置」而言。

註:before after 是指「時間」而言。雖說有時也有例外情事,如 My name comes before yours in the alphabet.(在字母的順序上,我的名字排在你的前面,但不在此討論範圍內。)

註:in back of ... 也可以寫成 behind

例:
25. We parked our can
in front of a bakery.

(我們把車停一家麵包店前面。)

 

 


inside ... 裡面。in inside 的差別,在於你如果要「特別強調完完全全在某個空間裡」時,用 inside。相反詞是 outside

例:
26. It's cold outside, but it's much warmer
inside the house.

(天氣很冷,但,卻是暖和很多。)

 


 

into

一、進入;到 ... 裡面:參考說明圖

例:
27. Throw some more wood
into the fire.

(再丟些木頭火堆。)

 

二、因某一行動,而產生在形式上的變化:

例:
28. Dale cut the cake
into six pieces.

Dale 把蛋糕切六塊。)

 

三、其它與動詞連結使用,請按這裡

 


 

like

一、像 ...

例:
29. This cat looks
like a small tiger.

(這隻貓看起來一隻小老虎。)

 

二、例如 ...

例:
30. You can't eat too much fast food,
like French fries and hamburgers.

(你不能吃太多速食,例如炸薯條和漢堡。)

 


 

near ... 附近;靠近

例:
31. There must be a convenience store
near here.

附近,必定有便利商店。)


32. My birthday is very
near the Chinese New Year this year.

(今年我的生日,農曆年很近。)

 


 

next to 在(人 / 事物)旁邊,等於 beside

例:
33. Your son sat
next to my daughter at the meeting.

(在會議中,你兒子就坐我女兒的旁邊。)

 


 

of

一、... 的:

例:
34. All
the windows of the classroom are open.

教室裡窗戶,全部都開開的。)


35. I remember
the color of her dress is yellow.

(我記得她洋裝顏色是黃的。)

 

二、用於計量單位時:

例:
36. Would you like
a cup of tea?

(你要不要來一杯?)


37. Please get
two pounds of sugar for me.

(請幫我買兩磅糖。)

 

三、表示某物的部分或整體的關係:這種用法,請參考這裡

例:
38.
Some of the girls will go shopping together this afternoon.

這些女孩之中,有些今天下午要去上街買東西。)


39. I know
two of the guests at the party tonight.

(我認識今晚宴會中的兩個客人。)

 

四、其它與形容詞連結使用,按這裡

 

五、其它與動詞連結使用,請按這裡

 


 

off

一、從某物的位置上落下或離開:

例:
40. That cowboy
fell off the horse last week and got hurt seriously.

(那位牛仔上星期馬上跌下來,而且受傷很嚴重。)


41. Please keep away
off the grass.

(請遠離草皮。)

 

二、距離某處某一個距離:

例:
42. Lanyu is an island
off the coast of Taitung.

(蘭嶼是台東海岸附近的一個島嶼。)

 

三、其它與動詞連結使用,請按這裡

 

四、off on 的區別,請按這裡

 


 

on

一、在 ... 的上面:

例:
43. There is a picture
on the front wall.

前牆,有一幅圖畫。)


44. Don't sit
on that chair. It's broken.

(不要坐那張椅子,它壞掉了。)

 

二、on + 街道:

例:
45. Two of my classmates live
on Cheng-gong Road.

(我有兩個同學住成功路。)

 

三、on + 日期:

例:
46. She was born
on January 1, 1986.

(她出生 1986 元月一日。)


47. I have two classes
on Tuesday afternoon.

(週二下午我有兩堂課。)

── 這是常見錯誤題,即使在日期後有morning / afternoon / evening / night,但介詞仍用on

 

四、on + TV/the radio/the Internet/the (cell) phone:注意the的有無。

例:
48. Tell me what you see
on the phone.

(在電話上,告訴我你所看到的。)


49. There's a wonderful movie
on TV at 9:00 p.m. tonight.

(今晚九點電視上有個很棒的影片。)

 

五、 on + 活動 / 差事:

例:
50. My mom has to go to Pintung
on business this Friday.

(我媽媽這個星期五要到屏東出差。)

 

六、on off 的區別:

on off 常以對應似地方式出現,如 turn on/turn off, put on/take off 等,日常生活中,最常見的,就是出現在電源開關上,當電源是要呈現「開」的狀態時,是轉到 on 的地方;反之,若要電源是呈現「關」的狀態時,則是轉到 off 的地方,那它們之間,到底要如何區別呢?

 

on:當「面與面的接觸」時,則用 on


off
:當「面與面的脫離」時,則用 off

 

所以當電源是要呈現「開」的狀態時,就是「開關」中的「兩片銅片的接觸」,所以用 on;反之,當電源是呈現「關」的狀態時,因是「開關」中的「兩片銅片的脫離」了,才會造成電源無法流通過去,所以用 off

依此類推,「穿衣服」是「衣服的面」和「身體的面」「接觸」了,所以是用 on;相反地,「脫衣服」是「衣服的面」和「身體的面」「脫離」了,所以是用 off

 

想想看一:飛機起飛,是用 on,還是 off?飛機降落,是用 on,還是 off

 

想想看二:果實從果樹上落下,是用 on,還是 off

 


 

綜合練習:請依上、下文意,選出最正確的答案。選項中,包含「介詞的使用彙整(一」中的介詞。

1. The policeman     a police uniform is very handsome.
 (A) on (B) in (C) of (D) at

 

2. Mary doesn't like Tony. She always keeps away     him.
 (A) near (B) from (C) around (D) beside

 

3. Mr. Chang has a big backyard    his house.
 (A) in front of (B) inside (C) outside (D) in back of

 

4. The report (報告) has to be written     Chinese, not English.
 (A) by (B) in (C) of (D) from

 

5. William: Do you get ready     the test in May?

Russel: Yes, and I think I must be able to pass it and go to my ideal (理想的) senior high school.

(A) on (B) at (C) for (D) of

 

6. Arthur, you're fifteen years old now. Don't always behave (行動)     a small child.
(A) like
 (B) near (C) inside (D) about

 

7. I got an e-mail     Henry this morning.
 (A) at (B) on (C) to (D) from

 

8. Our motorcycles are so similar (相似), so I can never tell one     the other.
(A) after
 (B) from (C) except (D) outside

 

9. Mr. Nixon took the plane at 4:20 and left     Kaohsiung.
 (A) for (B) from (C) at (D) across

 

10. Ms. Liu lost all of her money and credit card (信用卡), and she is     trouble now.
(A) on
 (B) at (C) in (D) of

 

11. Camping     the lake is wonderful. We can catch some fish for meals.
(A) before
 (B) from (C) near (D) behind

 

12. I'll meet one     my junior high school classmates this morning.
(A) on
 (B) at (C) in (D) of

 

13. Oh, my God. My dog bit my important report (報告)     pieces.
(A) into
 (B) down (C) out of (D) off

 

14. There are all kinds     shoes in my store. I'm sure you can get what you want.
(A) by
 (B) on (C) of (D) from

 

15. Though his car is small, he got it     500 thousand dollars.

(A) in (B) for (C) on (D) at

 

16. There are a lot of small islands     the coast (海岸) of Penghu.
(A) from
 (B) by (C) before (D) off

 

17. You can get the information (資訊) you want     the Internet.

(A) by (B) at (C) on (D) of

 

18. Let's go shopping     Gary's birthday party tonight.
(A) about
 (B) out of (C) in (D) for

 

19. Don't play computer games too long. You've to let your eyes rest after playing     30 minutes.
(A) for
 (B) at (C) during (D) behind

 

20. Every time I sit     the train, I fall in sleep easily.
(A) on
 (B) by (C) at (D) in

 

21. It's dangerous     the boy to ride his bike to school on such a busy street.
(A) of
 (B) like (C) for (D) on

 

22. Viola: Hi, I'm new in this class. I'm     Hsinchu.

Charles: Nice to meet you. Welcome to the nicest class at this school.

(A) from (B) at (C) near (D) in

 

23. I met one of my old friends who I didn't see for a long time     my vacation in Kinmen.
(A) into
 (B) in (C) of (D) on

 

24. Are you sure your father will come     Wednesday morning?

(A) at (B) on (C) in (D) of

 

25. Stewart: We can't sit on these two chairs. They are     old people.

Vivian: Oh, yes. Let's change another seats (座位).

(A) for (B) at (C) from (D) in back of

 

 

 

 

 

 

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