第六冊 12單元 介詞的使用彙整(三)

 

結 構:介詞的使用彙整(三)

 

本單元要說明的介詞包括有:out, out of, outside, over, since, than, to, under, until, up, with, without

outout 當介詞用,是美國英語的一種非正式用法,出現在口語上。其意思是從某物的裡面到外面。

例:
1. John looked
out the window of the classroom.

John 教室的窗戶出去。)

out outside 的差別,請按這裡


 

out of into 意思相反,請參考說明

例:
2. Tom took some money
out of his pocket and gave it to his son.

Tom 口袋中拿出一些錢,並拿給他的兒子。)

 


 

outside

一、在某建物或空間之外:outside 的相反詞是 inside

例:
3. Fred parked his car
outside the park.

Fred 把車子停公園外面。)

 

二、out outside 的差別:

out:當你離你所住的地方有段距離,或是去了要花很多時間才會到達的地方時,用 out

例:
4. My mom is
out, and she won't be back before 9:00.

(我媽媽外出,而且在九點以前不會回來。)

 

outside:若僅是指某棟建築物的室外或屋外,也就是離該建物或空間不遠的外面時,則用 outside

例:
5. Let's talk
outside the classroom.

(我們教室外面談。)

 


 

over

一、在 ... 的上面:等於 above;相反詞是 under

例:
6. The water came up
over our feet.

(水漲到淹過我們的腳。)

 

註:above overbelow under 有時在使用上也有區別。

若是指物體從一邊移到另一邊,也就是說「不是靜止不動的」,則只能用 over under

例:
7. While we were playing in the playground, a plane
flew over us.

(當我們正在操場上玩時,有一架飛機我們頭頂上飛過。)

 

8. In Hualien, you can see the train runs under the river.

(在花蓮,你可以看到火車河川底下穿過。)

 

註:一般認定 over 的相反詞是 underabove 的相反詞是 below

 

二、覆蓋:

例:

9. The mother got a quilt over her baby because it was getting a little cold.

(由於天氣變得有點冷,那個媽媽拿了一條被子,蓋在她小孩身上。)

 

三、跨越:

例:
10. There's a bridge
over the river.

這條河有座橋。)

 

四、超過:等於 more than

例:
11. All people
over the age of 15 in Taiwan have to get their ID cards

(在台灣,超過 15 歲的人,都要取得身份證。)

 

五、其它與動詞連結使用,請按這裡

 


 

since自從。和「現在完成式」或「過去完成式」連用。

例:
12. She and her family have lived here
since 1989.

(她和她的家人, 1989 以來,就住在這裡了。)


13. I hadn't seen them
since the graduation from junior high school.

自從國中畢業,我就沒有看到他們了。)

 


 

than ...

例:
14. Mr. Speakers is taller
than his brother.

Speakers 先生他哥哥要來得高。)

 


 

to

一、表示動作的方向:這是最常見的用法。

例:
15. I
go to school by bike every morning.

(我每天騎腳踏車上學。)


16. Mary just sent an e-mail
to her aunt.

Mary 剛剛寄了一封電子郵件她的阿姨。)

── 這種用法常出現在「授予動詞」上,to 用「表示動作的方向」這個概念,比較好記,也比較不會弄錯。

 

17. It takes the boy twenty minutes to walk from his home to the school.

(這個男孩花了二十分鐘,從他家走學校。)


18. Please say hello
to your parents for me when you see them.

(當你看到你爸媽時,請代我他們問候一下。)

 

二、answer/key to ... 很容易誤用為 of

例:
19. Did you see
my key to my car?

(你有看到我車子鑰匙嗎?)


20. You can get
the answer to the question on the Internet.

(你可以在網路上找到這個問題答案。)

 

三、其它與形容詞連結使用,請按這裡

 

四、其它與動詞連結使用,請按這裡

 


 

under

一、在 ... 的下面:有時和 below 同義,是 over 的相反詞。

例:
21. Your student ID card is
under the jacket.

(你的學生證夾克底下。)


22. Please sign your name
under your picture.

(請你的照片底下,簽上你的名字。)

 

二、在 ... 的影響之下:

例:
23. Don't worry. Everything is
under control.

(不用擔心,一切都掌控之中。)

 

三、在(某年齡、某數字)之下:

例:
24. He will buy it if the price is
under 5,000 dollars.

 


 

until直到。也可以寫成 till

例:
25. I'll stay in Changhua
until the end of this month.

(我會待在彰化這個月底。)

 


 

up ...

例:
26. If you
climb up the hill to the top, you'll see Jane's house.

(假如你山頂上,你就會看到 Jane 的家。)

 


 

with

一、和 ...

例:
27. Arnold went shopping
with his friends this evening.

Arnold 今天晚上他的朋友上街去買東西。)

 

二、具有或帶著:

例:
25. Do you know the girl
with glasses?

(你認識那個眼鏡的女孩嗎?)


26. It looks like rain. Take an umbrella
with you.

(快下雨了,你帶著傘吧。)

 

三、用(工具或器具):

例:
27. She answered the test
with this pen.

(她考試時這枝筆作答。)

 

四、其它與形容詞連結使用,請按這裡

 

五、其它與動詞連結使用,請按這裡

 


 

without

一、無、未經歷或未顯出(某事物 / 某人):

例:
28. I got a letter
without a stamp last week.

(上個星期,我收到了一封沒有貼郵票的信。)


29. He won't be happy
without you.

(他沒有,是快樂不起來的。)

 

二、不用 ...

例:
30. The little child can't eat himself
without a spoon.

(這個小孩沒有湯匙不會自己吃飯。)

 

三、not/never A without B 沒有 B 就不會 A;每 A B注意中、英文「字序」的排列。

例:
31. He
never rides his bicycle without getting hurt.

(他每次騎腳踏車受傷。)


32. I wo
n't take a trip without taking a camera.

沒有帶相機,我是不會去旅行的;我每次去旅行,一定會帶相機。)

 


 

綜合練習:請依上、下文意,選出最正確的答案。選項中,包含「介詞的使用彙整(一)介詞的使用彙整(二)」中的介詞。

1. Look! There's a big boy coming ______ us. Do you know him?
(A) with
 (B) from (C) beside (D) to

 

2. My father won't come back ______ tomorrow afternoon.
(A) since
 (B) until (C) in (D) on

 

3. The Central Cross-Island Highway ______ the Central Mountain Range (中央山脈) is dangerous but beautiful.
(A) along
 (B) into (C) over (D) from

 

4. Young people ______ 18 years old can't ride motorcycles.
(A) under
 (B) below (C) around (D) about

 

5. Many kinds of fish in the sea swim ______ the river to lay(生蛋) their eggs.
(A) up
 (B) of (C) behind (D) around

 

6. After class, a lot of students ran ______ the classroom to the playground.
(A) in back of
 (B) in front of (C) next to (D) out of

 

7. His sister will be married ______ a young, handsome gentleman (紳士) in Yunlin.
(A) by
 (B) to (C) for (D) over

 

8. John, would you please study ______ me today? I've a lot of questions to ask you.
(A) over
 (B) with (C) to (D) after

 

9. Of course, you run faster ______ me.
(A) than
 (B) with (C) around (D) near

 

10. People can't live ______ water and air.
(A) by
 (B) without (C) in (D) beside

 

11. The keys ______ the math questions are all printed (印刷) on the last page of the book.
(A) of
 (B) to (C) about (D) for

 

12. It's so hot today. Let's sit ______ the tree I'm sure it'll be cooler.
(A) off
 (B) until (C) under (D) above

 

13. The boss had an argument (爭辯) with Shannon yesterday, and we could heard the voices ______ his office.
(A) into
 (B) outside (C) over (D) with

 

14. There's a mosquito (蚊子) flying ______ your head.
(A) over
 (B) like (C) than (D) during

 

15. ______ a truck, we can never move these rocks and stones (石頭).
(A) Except
 (B) Inside (C) Across (D) Without

 

16. We'll start when the traffic light changes ______ green.
(A) off
 (B) to (C) in (D) with

 

17. Keep the bag ______ you, please. There's a lot of money inside it.
(A) about
 (B) up (C) along (D) with

 

18. Can you read the dialog ______ making any mistakes?
(A) without
 (B) between (C) inside (D) across

 

19. ______ ten years ago, we have worked for Mr. Nixon. That's why we know him so much.
(A) For
 (B) During (C) In (D) Since

 

20. My older brother told us an interesting story ______ dinner yesterday evening.
(A) on
 (B) by (C) at (D) in

 

21. The thief broke the window ______ a hammer (鐵槌) and got into his house.
(A) by
 (B) like (C) of (D) with

 

22. There's a big, dark cloud ______ our school. It looks like rain.
(A) across
 (B) down (C) over (D) behind

 

23. You have to take the bus ______ the department store where you want to go.
(A) to
 (B) for (C) outside (D) about

 

24. For the test next Monday, you have to study from 8:00 ______ 11:00 today.
(A) at
 (B) in (C) to (D) about

 

25. Emily: How many people will come to the garden party tomorrow?
Richard: Our teacher says
______ five hundred people will come.
(A) above
 (B) over (C) on (D) after

 

 

 

 

 

 

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