第五冊第 7 單元 使役動詞 have, make, let 的用法

 

標題句: His mother made him get a pack of sugar.

結 構:使役動詞的用法

 

所謂「 使役 」,就是叫人家去做事情,如:

1. 老師 John 到辦公室拿他的書
2.
爸爸 我明天下午要 洗車子
3.
王先生昨天 他們 坐在那邊

 

這類的動詞,英文中稱為「 使役動詞 」,有 make, have ( 使 ...), let 三個。這三個動詞的最大特色,也是須注意事項是, 其後的第二個動詞是用「原形動詞」,不可再加 to 。所以前述的三個例子的英文是:

4. The teacher made/had John get his book in the office.

註: 在當作「使役動詞」用法中, make = have 。)

5. Father makes/has me wash the car tomorrow afternoon.

6. Mr. Wang let them sit there yesterday.  

let 的過去式仍是 let

以上三句的使役動詞均故意用不同的時態,如此可以清楚地看出其後的 褐色動詞 仍是用「 原形動詞 」。

對於「 使役動詞 」的用法,建議背好底下的常用句子:

7. Let's go. (我們走吧!)

這一句不但常用,且句子很短, go 用「原形動詞」可突顯出「 使役動詞 + 原形動詞 」的特殊用法。


容易造成混淆的其他動詞 「使役動詞」只有三個,特殊用法記起來就沒事,但依經驗顯示,真正會造成學習扣分的原因,在於有些動詞的對應中文意思和「使役動詞」很類似,故容易和上述的「使役動詞」混在一起。這些動詞有 want ( ... ;叫 ...) ask ( 要求 ...) 。這兩個動詞後的第二個動詞,並不是用「原形動詞」,而是和其它的大多數的動詞一樣,是要加 to 的「 不定詞 。參照底下的例句:

7. The teacher wanted John to get his book in the office.
8. Father
wants me to wash the car tomorrow afternoon.
9. Mr. Wang
asked them to sit there yesterday.

 

為了要使學生能較正確地使用,通常建議學生背下底下的片語:

need to ...

learn to ...

want ( ) to ...

ask to ...

tell to ...

decide to ...

 

 

另一個容易造成混淆須注意事項 make have 除了本單元所提當「使役動詞」使用外,它們還有其它的意思; make 最常見者為「製造、製作」; have 還有「有、舉行、吃、喝」等的意思; have to 的中文對應意思是「必須」等,如:

10. Mother is making breakfast in the kitchen.

(媽媽正在廚房 早餐。)


11. This car is
made in Japan.

(這部車是日本 的。)

 

12. Helen had some cola at my home.

Helen 在我家 了一些可樂。)


13. When will Jack
have his birthday?

Jack 什麼時候要 舉行 他的慶生會?)


14. We
have to go to Jimmy's home to pick him up first.

(我們必須先到 Jimmy 家去接他。)

 

所以看到題目,不能只直覺反應 make have 一定是「使役動詞」用法, 還是要看上、下文意思決定


另外一個有趣的動詞是 help ,其後的第二個動詞可直接用「原形動詞」,也可以和其它的大多數的動詞一樣,加 to 形成「 不定詞 」。

15. Our teacher helped us (to) practice singing.

因兩種情形均可,故對學生來說,幾乎很少犯錯。

但若把所有到目前所學過的動詞形式和時態,都混在一起測驗,那可不容易了。

想想看一: 請依上、下文意,選出最適當的答案。

1. Our teacher wants us     at least two hours a day.

  (A) study   (B) studied   (C) studying   (D) to study

 

2. Because of the low marks on the last math test, Mrs. Pan makes her son     it at least two hours a day.

  (A) study   (B) studied   (C) studying   (D) to study

 

3. Carol is popular in her class because she often helps her classmates     their homework even when she is busy.

  (A) does   (B) doing   (C) to do   (D) are doing

 

4. Her grandfather's health is getting better and better.     exercise often improves ( 改善 ) it.

  (A) Take   (B) Be taken   (C) Having taken   (D) Taking

 

5. In order to produce ( 生產 ) more shoes, the boss asks us     to the factory 30 minutes earlier every day.

  (A) getting   (B) to get   (C) get   (D) will get

 

6. Son: Daddy, I     the noodles in the boiling water. What will I do then?

  Daddy: Now we have to wait for about five minutes.

  (A) will put   (B) have put   (C) put   (D) putting

 

7. Don't let children     on the busy streets. It's dangerous.

  (A) play   (B) to play   (C) have played   (D) playing

 

8. Sharon: Sorry, I can't go shopping with you tonight. I have     home to be with my mother. She catches a bad cold.

  Rose: That's OK. Never mind. I can call Vivian.

  (A) staying   (B) will stay   (C) to stay   (D) stay

 

9. Edwin: Hey, Brian. Where're you going?

  Brian: I'm going to the supermarket. My mom has me     a pack of salt for her.

  (A) getting   (B) to get   (C) get   (D) will get

 

10. We don't need to eat out tonight. Mom says she has     dinner and is going to be ready soon.

  (A) cooked   (B) cooking   (C) cook   (D) to cook

 

11. Jill works so hard, and her boss is always     with what she does.

  (A) to satisfy   (B) have satisfied   (C) satisfying   (D) satisfied

 

12. (On the phone)

  Jack: Hello. This is Jack speaking. Is Mr. Gao home?

  Miller: Sorry. My father is enjoying     table tennis with his old friends at the school. You can see him there.

  Jack: Thanks.

  (A) play   (B) playing   (C) to play   (D) played

 

13. Mrs. Chung: Thank you for your present, Rachel. This doll must     my daughter, especially she has blonde hair ( 金髮 ).

  Rachel: You're welcome. Little Lucy is so cute, and I hope she's going to love it.

  (A) excite   (B) be excited   (C) excites   (D) have excited

 

14. Next month the Wu family     some famous museums by car.

  (A) visits   (B) to visit   (C) has visited   (D) will visit

 

15. Lisa: Last Monday early morning, when I rode my bike along that street, Roger     for the bus at a bus stop.

  Justin: Really? Doesn't he always drive to work?

  (A) had waited   (B) was waiting   (C) will wait   (D) to wait

 

想想看二: 請將下列各句翻譯成英文。

1. 因為天氣太冷了,老師要 Ken 把兩個門關上。

(用 make want 各造一個句子。)

2. 在學校吃過午餐後,老師並沒有要求學生刷牙。

3. 上禮拜,他做了一間狗屋,以便讓他的狗睡在裡面。

4. 他們還沒決定學開車。

5. 今天早上, Wilson 先生叫人把他的車子修理一下。

 

 

 

 

 

 

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