第五冊第 8 單元 連接詞 if though 的使用

 

標題句: If it rains tomorrow, I won't go.

He's still happy though he doesn't have much money.

結 構:連接詞 if though 的用法

 

if though  都是屬於「連接詞」,這兩個連接詞用法有相同之處,但 though 另有一須注意事項,故這兩個連接詞將分開說明。

if 的用法 :在這裡的 if 中文的對應意思是「假如」,在國中階段,你需要學會兩種用法。

 

第一種用法:

這可以說是最常見的用法,尤其是句中的時間是「未來」時

在介紹 and/but 的用法時,即已介紹過什麼是「 子句 」?而「連接詞」的功用,就是用來連接兩個「 子句 」,形成一個較大句子之用,大致上可以以下表簡略說明:

子句1

連接詞

子句2

所以我們可以依上述的句型表,用 if 來造兩個例句:

1. I will keep my body healthy if I eat more vegetables every day.

(假如我每天吃多一點蔬菜,我就會保持身體健康。)

── if 前後各有一個子句。

 

2. Jeff will stay at home if it rain s tomorrow .

(假如明天下雨的話, Jeff 要待在家裡面。)

 

注意事項: if 所連接的子句,到目前為止, 有兩點須注意者

A. if 和後面所連接的子句,可以一起移放到句首的位置。所以例句 1,2 可以改為:

3. If I eat more vegetables every day, I will keep my body healthy.

 

4. If it rain s tomorrow , Jeff will stay at home.

常見例句,請務必背熟,尤其是 If it rain s tomorrow , ... 。)

 

這樣的移位改變,你若把它們翻譯成中文,你將可以發現到,這樣寫比較符合我們語言的說話習慣。但:

想想看一: 例句 3 4 和例句 1 2 比較,除了兩個子句的原有位置互調的改變之外,請問還有哪些不同之處?(眼睛睜大一點看)

 

B. if (假如)後面所連接的子句,若其時間為「未來」時,須用「 現在單純式 」代替「未來式」 這一點很重要,很常考,但卻也是非常常見錯誤題 。就以上述兩個例句做說明:

例句 3

該句是一假設句,假設說,從今天以後,「如果我每天吃蔬菜的話」,事實上根本還沒這樣子做,所以後面的句子,才會有用未來的 will keep 出現;可是前面 I eat 的部分,卻是使用「現在單純式」的 I eat ,而不是 I will eat

例句 4

if 子句內的 tomorrow ,可以很清楚出的判斷出這是「未來時間」,後面子句的 will stay 雖然仍是保持「未來式」,但連接詞 if 後面子句內的動詞 rains 卻是使用「 現在單純式 」, 因主詞 it 是「第三人稱單數」,所以 rain 字尾要加 s

 

也就是說, if 所連接的子句中,若時間為「未來」時,仍須用「現在單純式代替未來式」 建議牢記 If it rain s tomorrow, ...

有這種情形的「連接詞」,到目前為止,還有 before, after, when 等。

 

第二種用法:

就是所謂的「與現在事實相反」的假設法,它的基本句型是:

If

主詞

過去單純式

‧‧‧

主詞

would
could
should

原形動詞

‧‧‧

例:
5. If he
lived here, he would often go mountain climbing.

(假如他住在這裡的話,他會常常去爬山。)

── 而事實上,他現在並沒有住在這裡。

 

6. John could get a big present if Aunt Julia came today.

(假如 Julia 姑媽今天有來的話, John 會收到一份大禮物。)

── 而事實上, Julia 姑媽今天並沒有來。

 

這種用法,最常用在底下的情況:

7. If I were you, I would help Tommy.

(假如我是你的話,我就會幫他的忙。)

── 而事實上,我並不是你。從句中意思,並不難判斷,這是以站在對方的立場,給對方一個建議。

 

8. If I were you, I would try my best to finish it today.

(假如我是你的話,我就會在今天盡力把它完成。)

── 而事實上,我並不是你。這也是以站在對方的立場,給對方一個建議。

 

從例句 7 8 ,我們可以發現到一個很奇怪的字, 主詞是 I ,為何動詞是 were 呢?這確是件很奇怪的事,說不出原因,文法書也未見說明,困擾了不少學生,但卻是很常見的考題,建議直接背下這個用法:

If I were you, I would + 原形動詞 ‧‧‧

 


 

though 的用法:

though (雖然)的大致用法和 if 用法的「注意事項 A 」相同,其所引導的子句,可以放在句前,也可以放在句尾,如:

5. He still has to work though he is old and weak.

(他雖然已又老又虛弱,但是他仍然必須工作。)

Though he is old and weak , he still has to work.

── 兩子句間,仍須加逗號。

 

6. The old woman is happy though she doesn't have much money.

(那位老婦人雖然沒有什麼錢,但她還是很快樂。)

Though the old woman doesn't have much money , she is happy.

── 兩子句間,仍須加逗號。

 

想想看二: 除了逗號外,比較例句 5 6 的中、英文,在將中文翻譯成英文的過程中,你最有可能發生的錯誤是什麼?

 

想想看三: 為什麼上述兩個例句的英文裡,不能再加上 but

 

想想看四: 若改用 but ,則上述兩個句子的英文又是什麼?

 


 

復習一下: so because

在此之前我們已學到了,這 so because 兩個「連接詞」也 不能同時使用 ,再復習那些例句:

7. Because I had no money , I didn't buy the book last night.
  I had no money, so I didn't buy the book last night .

 

8. Because he wants to go to the basketball game , we go with him.
  He wants to go to the basketball game, so we go with him .

 

這一點是不是和 though/but 不能同時使用的情形相同呢?

讀過前述的敘述之後,你應該可以了解到,和本單元的相關練習,除了是連接詞的用法外,還需要注意到動詞問題,若你已不記得了,請再從頭看一次。底下就針對這些焦點,做些練習看看你懂了沒?

想想看五: 請依上、下文意,選出最適當的答案。

1. One of my daughters often doesn't do well on math tests,     she still studies it hard.
  (A) so   (B) though   (C) because   (D) but

 

2. Don't drink too much tea or coffee     you go to bed. They will make you awake ( 醒著 ).
  (A) before   (B) after   (C) when   (D) though

 

3. Eric: Where's Roland? Did you see him, Leo?

Leo: I don't know. He took his notebook     went out without saying any words.

  (A) and   (B) so   (C) but   (D) if

 

4. In the swimming class, the teacher must ask his or her students to do some exercise     they start swimming.
  (A) after   (B) when   (C) and   (D) before

 

5. Patrick: Thanks, Tom. I wouldn't succeed ( 成功 )     you didn't help me.

  Tom: You're welcome. We're good friends, aren't we?
  (A) when   (B) if   (C) though   (D) so

 

6.     the man has spent a lot of money on lotteries ( 樂透彩 ), he still gets nothing.
(A) If
  (B) Though   (C) When   (D) Before

 

7. Mother: Antony, don't forget you have a lot of homework today. Stop watching TV now,     you won't finish it before 12:00.

  Antony: OK.
  (A) so   (B) and   (C) or   (D) but

 

8. We students have to listen to the teacher     he or she teaches in class.
(A) before
  (B) though   (C) when   (D) because

 

9. The doctor tells the sick man his body will get worse and worse     he keeps smoking.
(A) because
  (B) though   (C) if   (D) when

 

10. There's an English test tomorrow,     I have to stay home to study for it.
(A) so
  (B) but   (C) and   (D) or

 

想想看六: 請依上、下文意,選出最適當的答案。

Mother:

Doris, it's time for bed. It's too late now.

Doris:

I know, Mom. But I'm afraid I won't pass the test tomorrow if I   (1)   all the lessons tonight.

Mother:

I know you're a hard-working girl,   (2)   your health is more important. If I   (3)   you, I would go to bed earlier. Daddy and I are   (4)   about you.

Doris:

Thanks, mom. I'll go to bed   (5)   the alarm clock ( 鬧鐘 ) rings.

Mother:

When   (6)   you set ( 設定 ) your alarm clock?

Doris:

At one o'clock.

Mother:

One o'clock. ONE O'CLOCK! Do you mean the one o'clock tomorrow early morning?! Isn't it too late?

Doris:

Yes, but I can't help. I have   (7)   so.

Mother:

You won't concentrate ( 集中精神 ) on what your teacher says in class   (8)   you don't get enough sleep.

Doris:

Then...

Mother:

No more words, my dear daughter.   (9)   to bed now. Your problem is you need   (10)   your habit. Don't watch too much TV, and then you can save more time to study.

Doris:

OK, Mom.

1. (A) won't study   (B) didn't study   (C) don't study   (D) am not studying

2. (A) though   (B) and   (C) when   (D) but
3. (A) am
  (B) was   (C) are   (D) were
4. (A) worry
  (B) worrying   (C) worried   (D) to worry
5. (A) when
  (B) because   (C) though   (D) or
6. (A) were
  (B) did   (C) will   (D) have
7. (A) do
  (B) to do   (C) doing   (D) did
8. (A) because
  (B) so   (C) if   (D) and
9. (A) Go
  (B) Going   (C) Went   (D) To go

10. (A) have changed   (B) are changing   (C) to change   (D) will change

 

想想看七: 請將下列各句翻譯成英文。

1. 雖然他已打了很久的籃球,但他還是不會覺得累。

2. 假如 Peggy 下個月贏得了首獎的話,她的父母親將會給她獎金 5,000 元。

3. 因為那間教室太髒了,所以我的學生們正在那兒打掃。

4. 雖然她把鑰匙藏在抽屜裡,但是我們最後還是找到了它。

5. 假如我是你的話,我就搭飛機去台中。

6. 因為我對數學不感興趣,所以我每天努力讀英語。

 

 

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