第五冊第 9 單元 動詞時態與動詞形式綜合應用

 

標題句:各種動詞時態用法彙整

結 構:動詞時態綜合應用

 

到目前為止,我們大致上已學會了國中階段的所有動詞時態,在學習更為複雜的句型和文法之前,我們先來復習所有已學過的這些時態:

現在進行式

這是一個概念很簡單的動詞時態,從字面上即可了解,它是用在於「表示一個動作,在現在的時間裡面正在進行」,如:

1. He is watching TV in the living room.

(他正在客廳裡看電視。)

2. It's ten o'clock a.m. now. The students are playing basketball at school.

(現在是早上十點,學生們正在學校裡打籃球。)

基本句型:

主 詞

be

V-ing

‧‧‧

本句型的重點,在於 be + V-ing ,且 be 須得視「 主詞 」的不同,而選用 am, are, is

「現在進行式」也可能用於「未來時間」。它句中動作是「既定、已決定」,尤其是個人已安排好的行程,或即將發生的事項,常見用「現在進行式」表達,例:

3. My family are going to Penghu next summer vacation.

(我們家明年暑假,要到澎湖。)
4. What are you eating for lunch today?

(你們今天午餐吃什麼?)
5. The Chinese New Year is coming. I can't wait!

(農曆年就快到了,我實在等不及它的來臨!)

 

在單純式

學到這個時候,「現在單純式」反而是個不太容易理解的動詞時態,僅先記住底下的這幾種情形即可:

A. 不變的事實與真理 ,例:
6. We need water and air.

(我們需要水和空氣。)

 

B. 目前有的習慣性或有規律性的行為或動作 ,例:
7. My wife and I go bike riding every Sunday.

(我和我太太每週日去騎腳踏車。)


8. Mary goes to the movies twice a month.

Mary 每個月去看兩次電影。)

 

C. 現在仍存在的事實 ,例:
9. I study in junior high school.

(我讀國中。)


10. He lives in Doulan, Yunlin.

(他住在雲林縣斗南。)

 

D. Here comes ... There goes ... 開頭的句子 ,如:
11. Here comes the bus.

(公車來了。)

12. There goes our train.

(我們的火車走了。)

 

E. 「問路」與「指引路線」 ,如:
13. John: Excuse me. How do I get to the train station?

(對不起,請問一下,到火車站怎麼走?)

  Tom: You can go along this road and turn right at the traffic light.

(你可以直走,然後在紅綠燈的時候右轉。)

 

F. 只能用單純式表達的動詞 ,如 have (有)、 like (喜歡)、 believe (相信)等。(但若當作其它解釋時,則不在此限,如 have 也可以當作「吃」、「舉行」解釋等。)

 

G. 「未來時間」中的預訂行程,尤其是指行事曆或時刻表上已安排好的事項,宜使用現在單純式 ,例:
14. His airplane arrives at 13:30.

(他的班機 13:30 抵達。)


15. The basketball game starts at 10:00.

(籃球賽十點開打。)

 

基本句型:

主 詞

動詞字尾加 s/es/ies

(限用主詞為第三人稱單數時)
原形動詞(其它人稱條件)

‧‧‧

 

過去單純式

這是一個非常常見的動詞時態 。發生在過去時間裡的動作,通常就是用「過去單純式」表達,例:

16. He lived in Changhua five years ago.

(他五年前住在彰化。)


17. Mrs. Chen stayed at that hotel last month.

(陳太太上個月就是住在那棟旅館。)


18. When I studied in Kaohsiung, I usually got up at six.

(當我在高雄讀書時,我通常是六點起床。)

 

基本句型:

主 詞

過去式動詞
(動詞過去式有 規則變化 不規則變化

‧‧‧

 

過去進行式

時間是在過去,但有底下的兩種情形時,該動作用「過去進行式」:

A. 在過去的某一特定時間裡正在發生的動作 ,例:
19. My son was doing his homework at 7:30 last night.

(昨晚七點半時,我兒子正在做功課。)

20. They were playing badminton then.

(他們當時正在打羽球。)

 

B. 在過去的時間裡,當某一個動作突然發生時,另一個動作正在進行 ,例:
21. When Father got home, I was watching TV in the living room.

(當爸爸回到家的時候,我正在客廳裡看電視。)


22. I was window shopping when the accident happened.

(當車禍發生的時候,我正在逛街。)

 

基本句型:

主 詞

was/were

V-ing

‧‧‧

 

未來式

動作發生在未來的時間 時,用「未來式」,計有兩種表達方式,例:

23. Ms. Chang will fly to Taipei tomorrow.

(張小姐明天要搭飛機去台北。)

24. Ms. Chang is going to fly to Taipei tomorrow.

 

25. The Su family will have a picnic next Sunday.

(蘇家下週日要去郊遊。)
26. The Su family are going to have a picnic next Sunday.

 

基本句型:

主 詞

will
be going to

原形動詞

‧‧‧

be going to 中的 be ,需視「主詞」不同,決定使用 am, are, is 。)

 

現在完成式

基本觀念是

A. 兩個時間參照點,一個是「過去」,另一個「現在」
B.
句中的動作是從「過去的某個時間點,一直廷續到現在」

例:
27. My teacher has written two books.

(我的老師已經出了兩本書了。)

   ── 從他出書到現在,已出了兩本,至於以後是否還繼續出版,不得而知。

28. I have been to Japan.

(我已經去過日本了。)

   ── 從我出生到現在,已有過去日本的經驗。

基本句型:

主 詞

has (限用於主詞第三人稱單數)

have (其它人稱條件使用)

p. p.

‧‧‧

詳細使用情形,請參考本冊「 現在完成式 」單元。

 

被動態

最簡單的概念是,對應中文的「被」,但台灣學生難懂的地方是,有些句子在「字面上」並沒有「被」字,但在「概念上」仍是屬於「被動態」,則仍需要使用「被動態」的句子表達,例:

29. His car is made in Japan.

(他的車是日本製的。)


30. Your book was put on the TV.

(你的書放在電視機上面。)


31. The window was broken.

(窗戶破了。)

 

和上述例子類似的句子很常見,也很容易弄錯, 請務必要注意

基本句型:

主 詞

am/are/is
was/were
will be
have/has been
am/are/is being

p. p.

‧‧‧

「被動態」句子的「動詞時態」表現在 be 。詳細使用情形,請參考本冊「 被動態 」單元。

再復習一些觀念:

A. this morning 要用什麼時態?

用底下兩個例子說明:

32. He came to school by bicycle this morning.

(他今早騎腳踏車上學。)
──
他人已來學校,所以句中所談的事情,屬於過去式。

 

33. His father will take him to see a doctor this morning.

(今天早上,他爸爸要帶他去看醫生。)
──
他爸爸還沒帶他去,所以句中所談的事情,屬於未來式。

 

this morning 很相似的時間,還 this afternoon , this evening, tonight, today 等。

B. for + 時間」要用什麼動詞時態?

再復習在「 現在完成式 」單元所學過的例子說明:

34. Mary 已經 看了三個鐘頭的電視了。

Mary has watched TV for three hours.

 

35. Mary 昨天 看了三個鐘頭的電視了。

Mary watched TV for three hours.

 

36. Mary 到四點的時候 ,就看了三個鐘頭的電視。

Mary will have watched TV for three hours at four o'clock.

 

這三個例子,顯然例句 34 是用「現在完成式」,但例句 35 是發生在過去,故仍是用「 過去式 」,而例句 36 呢?句中所指的「到四點的時候」還沒到,故應是用「 未來 」的表達方式才對。由此可知, for + 時間」 雖是「持續了一段時間」,但應用何種動詞時態,仍須看句中上下文來決定

底下練習除了包含上述的各種表達法外,還加了「 祈使句 」、「 不定詞 」、「 動名詞當主詞或受詞用 」、「 感官動詞 」、「 使役動詞 」、「 remember/forget/stop + V-ing/to 原形 V 」、「 分詞當形容詞用 」、「 if though 後所接子句的動詞時態 」等用法,若你對於上述的一些以前所學過的用法不熟,或已忘記了,請利用相關連結復習一下;或你也可以到「 國中英語文法診斷網 」中,找到相關網頁,做相關單元網頁的診斷練習,看看哪個文法要點需要補強、復習的。

想想看一: ( 單題式 ) 請依上、下文意,選出正確答案。

1. He len: Owen, Mom said you forget     your wallet and cell phone.

Owen: Really? Didn't I put them in my pockets? (Check his pockets) Oh, no. They aren't in my pockets!

(A) took   (B) take   (C) taking   (D) to take

 

2. The only way to get good grades on English tests is     it every day.
(A) study
  (B) to study   (C) is studied   (D) has studied

 

3. William: Congratulations ( 恭喜 ) , David. The boss is     with what you did.

David: It does be good news. Thank you so much.

(A) satisfy   (B) satisfies   (C) satisfied   (D) satisfying

 

4. (On the phone)
  Jeff: Mom, can you pick me up? I'm at the movie theater.
  Mom: Why don't you ride your bike home?
  Jeff: My bike     . I can't find it. Please take me home.
  (A) has lost   (B) is lost   (C) is losing   (D) to lose

 

5. Please     off your hat before you get into her house. She doesn't like a person with a hat in her house.
(A) take
  (B) takes   (C) taking   (D) took

 

6. I wouldn't go to a movie at this time if I     you because there's a math test tomorrow.

  (A) am   (B) was   (C) are   (D) were

 

7. The students went home after they finished     their classroom.
(A) clean
  (B) cleaned   (C) cleaning   (D) to clean

 

8. Helen: Did you see Bill     his lessons in the classroom on the weekend?

Ted: Yes, I did. He worked very hard at his desk quietly.

(A) studies   (B) studied   (C) studying   (D) to study

 

9. Alice: Don't worry. When you     to the station, your cousin, Wendy, will meet you there.

Sue: OK.

(A) get   (B) got   (C) to get   (D) will get

 

10. Steve often made his classmate or friend     his homework for him when he studied in high school.
(A) do
  (B) does   (C) did   (D) doing

 

11. Father asks Tom to take a rest or do something else outside because he     TV for more than three hours.
(A) is watching
  (B) will watch   (C) is watched   (D) has watched

 

12. Look! There are more and more clouds in the sky.     We'd better ( 最好 ) leave now.
(A) It's raining.
  (B) It's going to rain.   (C) It was raining.   (D) It's rained.

 

13. When I visited him last night, he     with some of his friends in the living room.
(A) was singing
  (B) is singing   (C) has sung   (D) will sing

 

14. Shhh... Please talk quietly. Our baby     over there.
  (A) will sleep   (B) has slept   (C) is sleeping   (D) was sleeping

15. Before you go to bed, remember     the door is locked ( 鎖住 ).
  (A) check   (B) checking   (C) to check   (D) checked

16. Mrs. Smith always     her son to school when he studied in elementary school.
(A) drives
  (B) drove   (C) has driven   (D) will drive

17. That old woman moved here five years ago and     away again the next year.
(A) move
  (B) to move   (C) will move   (D) moved

18. Susan: Did you get Rachel's e-mail? She wanted you to give her your response ( 答覆 ).

Rose: Yes, I'm reading it and     to her later.

(A) I've written   (B) I'll write   (C) I'm writing   (D) I was writing

 

19.     is one of the most important skills when you read.
  (A) Guess   (B) Guessing   (C) Having guessed   (D) Guessed

 

20. Since Jenny studied at that school, she     a lot of friends in her new class.
(A) will make
  (B) is made   (C) is making   (D) has made

 

21. Before Mr. Green     here, we have to get everything ready, or he will get angry.
(A) arrives
  (B) will arrive   (C) has arrived   (D) arrived

 

22. John: This is my first time     Kinmen. What a beautiful island!

Bill: You'll love it after your staying here for a week. People here are all very friendly.

(A) to visit   (B) visiting   (C) visit   (D) visited

 

23. Though my son was only five years old then, he was never afraid of     a bicycle himself.
(A) ride
  (B) to ride   (C) riding   (D) rode

 

24. All the tools have to     on the long table after the class, or the students next hour won't find some of them.
(A) collect
  (B) have collected   (C) be collecting   (D) be collected

 

25. Grace: Would you mind     the door? It's so cold today.
  Jimmy: All right.
  (A) to close   (B) closing   (C) close   (D) closed

 

26. The teacher: Any questions? If you have any questions to ask me,     your hand to let me know.

Henry: Yes, here's a question about the little boy on page 32.

(A) raises   (B) will raise   (C) be raising   (D) raise

 

27. Allen: Your English is very good. How long     it?
Ella: Only six years, but I practice it as often as I can.
(A) did you learn
  (B) have you learned   (C) are you learning   (D) will you learn

 

28. Ted: Would you please stop     that song? Change another one. I'm tired of it.

Cane: I know what you feel; however, it's the only song I can sing.

(A) singing   (B) sang   (C) to sing   (D) sing

 

29. Sally: Why does Adam always watch that kind of cartoon ( 卡通 )? I feel it's     .

Victoria: That's you. Adam's only a three-year-old little boy.

(A) bores   (B) bored   (C) boring   (D) to bore

 

30. We don't have much time, everyone. Let's     now.
  (A) start   (B) to start   (C) starting   (D) started

 

想想看二: ( 整段式 ) 請依上、下文意,選出最適當的答案,以使整段文章通順。

Looking at the sky, the flying birds let me think of the happy time in Goodluck Junior High School. I   (1)   here for more than 2 years and a half, and we're leaving in a few months. I never   (2)   everything here. All the teachers love us though sometimes they   (3)   angry with us because we did something bad.

The big exam is in May. Some of my classmates
  (4)   for it, but some are still doing the same thing as before -- playing all the time. I   (5)   they can know time flies and never comes back again.

1. (A) study   (B) studied   (C) will study   (D) have studied
2. (A) forget
  (B) forgot   (C) will forget   (D) have forgot
3. (A) get
  (B) got   (C) will get   (D) have got
4. (A) prepare
  (B) prepared   (C) are preparing   (D) will prepare
5. (A) hope
  (B) have hoped   (C) hoped   (D) will hope

 


 

Next week, Mr. Black has a three-day holiday. Now he   (6)   about where to spend his holidays. Three months ago, he   (7)   to Kenting and had a nice time. This time, he decides   (8)   a trip to Taipei. His friend told him there is a new and nice hotel there. He   (9)   at the hotel for two nights. The only problem is how to get to Taipei. Oh, yes! The train!   (10)   a train always makes him happy. Right now he turns on his computer and starts to make the reservation ( 預訂房間 ) for the train on line.

6. (A) think   (B) is thinking   (C) thought   (D) will think
7. (A) goes
  (B) is going   (C) went   (D) will go
8. (A) take
  (B) taking   (C) will take   (D) to take
9. (A) stay
  (B) staying   (C) will stay   (D) to stay
10. (A) Taking
  (B) Takes   (C) Took   (D) Take

 


 

vietnam

Mom told me she and Dad planned to take us to Vietnam on this winter vacation when my family had dinner together last Saturday. I   (11)   so happy, because it'll be my first time   (12)   an airplane. I   (13)   the day to come since I was a child.   (14)   from the high sky is always what I want. It must be   (15)   . All the houses and cars and trucks become small.

This morning, however, Dad   (16)   me about that again. He said my math isn't good. I often   (17)   grades below 60. If I   (18)   it on the last test in this semester, this plan will   (19)   . He had me   (20)   it at least one hour a day. I told my best friend, Frank, about it, and he wanted   (21)   me. Now, do you know what I'm doing in my room? Of course, I   (22)   math. Vietnam,   (23)   for me. I do believe I can visit you during this winter vacation.

book

cancel :取消

11. (A) am   (B) was   (C) will be   (D) have been
12. (A) am taking
  (B) take   (C) to take   (D) will take

13. (A) have dreamed   (B) will dream   (C) am dreaming   (D) was dreamed

14. (A) Be going to watch   (B) Watching   (C) Having watched   (D) Watched

15. (A) interest   (B) to interest   (C) interested   (D) interesting
16. (A) tells
  (B) told   (C) will tell   (D) has told
17. (A) am getting
  (B) will get   (C) have gotten   (D) get

18. (A) won't pass   (B) am not passing   (C) don't pass   (D) didn't pass

19. (A) be canceled   (B) have canceled   (C) cancels   (D) canceled
20. (A) study
  (B) studied   (C) studying   (D) to study
21. (A) help
  (B) helping   (C) helped   (D) to help

22. (A) studies   (B) have studied   (C) am studying   (D) was studying

23. (A) waits   (B) wait   (C) waiting   (D) to wait

 

 

 

 

 

創用CC標示:
CC